Preface Author's preface.
Acknowledgment Author's acknowledgments.
CHAPTER I. Early History and Reminiscence
CHAPTER II. The Iron Works
CHAPTER III. The Coming of the Railway and Bridges
Francis P. Sharp, Orchardist, and
        Act To Separate Parish From Town
CHAPTER V. A. Henderson's Furniture Factory
CHAPTER VI. Main Road From Town Line To Corner
CHAPTER VII. River Road From Corner, North
CHAPTER VIII. Jacksonville Road
CHAPTER IX. Presbyterian Graveyard
CHAPTER X. Conclusion




Major F. A. Good, President of the York and Sunbury Historical Society, has been asking me for years to write a history of Upper Woodstock in its early days and I always said, "Yes, I will," and never began to do so. A few months ago I found an article in the "Hartland Observer" saying a map had been found of Carleton County as it was in 1876 and the number of houses and names of householders of each village were given and that at that date Upper Woodstock outnumbered them all—number of houses 72 and the next in size was Benton with 64. The other villages had from 20 to 40 houses each, so Upper Woodstock was the next in size to Woodstock. This made me think I must get to work at once.

I wrote the "Observer." They told me that Mr. Samuel G. Barter, of Avondale, had the map. I wrote Mr. Barter. He said the map was too bulky to send to me but he very kindly drew a map and named all the householders in the village at that time. I began to study this map and found out that my memory of houses and names had been exact and that I could verify every item. Now, thanking Mr. Barter for his painstaking work, I begin my history. I am quoting from Clark McBride's "History of Carleton County," William Baird's "Seventy Years of New Brunswick Life," from "Historical Society of New Brunswick," "The Busy East of 1922," "Our Dominion" by the Historical Publishing Co. of Canada, Toronto, the A. Henderson Ledgers and Day Books, the Legislative Assembly Journals, the Royal Gazettes, and my own diary of 1884 to 1886.



I wish to take this opportunity of thanking the followng people, who have supplied me with valuable information about the early families of Upper Woodstock:— Mr. David Jackson, Upper Woodstock, who is now over eighty years of age; Mr. George Hamilton, Calgary; Mr. Edwin Jennings, Newburgh; Miss Annie Hazen, Upper Woodstock; Mrs. Alonzo Brewer, Butte, Montana; Miss Annie Hipwell, Chilliwack, B. C.; Mr. Fred McCloskey, Upper Woodstock; Mrs. Ivan Jackson, Upper Woodstock; Mr. Burton Wright, Woodstock; Mrs. Willard Emery, Woodstock; Mrs. Eleanor Slipp Abbott, Woodstock; Mrs. Duppa Smith, Woodstock; Mrs. Archie Plummer, Woodstock; Miss Sylvia Ferguson, Saint John; Mrs. Frank Currie, Woodstock; Mrs. Frank Tilley, Woodstock; Mr. Cecil K. Fitzsimmons, Woodstock.

For assistance in obtaining information from the early newspapers, I want to mention Miss Georgie Starret, of the Fisher Public Library, Woodstock.

I wish to thank also Mr. P. C. Robinson, of the Provincial Legislative Library, without whose valuable assistance I could not have obtained the information from the Minutes of the House. Also Mr. T. C. Macnabb, General Superientendent of the C. P. R., for railroad history.



Chapter I.


"In the year 1826 there were but two houses at the mouth of the Meduxnakeg Creek — one on either side of it — each occupied by a Mr. Smith."

"In the spring of 1832 an Act was passed by the Legislature of New Brunswick for the division of York County by the formation of Carleton County and it was proclaimed May 30, 1832. Carleton at that time embraced Victoria and part of Madawaska, and was named after the first Governor of New Brunswick — Sir Thomas Carleton. At that time there were three villages aloing the river:— Lower Woodstock, The Creek (Woodstock), and Upper Woodstock."

"The first store in Carleton County was opened for the public at the Ferry Landing near Bull's Creek, Lower Woodstock, and the next one by Thomas Phillips at Upper Woodstock. At the time of the formation of Carleton County one of the Members of Parliament for York County — Col. Richard Ketchum — had large business interests in Upper Woodstock, and he gave the site for the Court House and Gaol at that place, and when the buildings were finished the Governor, Sir Archibald Campbell, proclaimed Upper Woodstock the Shire Town."

"In 1836 the Woodstock and Fredericton coaches ran to the Court House at Upper Woodstock and made a five-minute stop at some convenient place on the north side of the Meduxnakeag Creek."

"In 1838 half an acre of land from the Joseph Young grant in Upper Woodstock was deeded to Adam Sharp, James Robertson, James McLauchlan, Rufus DeMill, James Rankin and Walter Hay, for the purpose of a Presbyterian Church, or a Church of Scotland, and a graveyard, and a church called "St. Andrews" was built there and was in use many years."

"In 1847 there was a great movement at the Creek to have the Court House moved there. A correspondent, addressing Headquarters at Fredericton in 1847 writes:— 'I will show the existing disparity between the two places — Hardscrabble the shire town and Woodstock Village — and leave the decision to any person possessed of ordinary understanding as to where the public buildings ought to be placed. The distance between these places is one and three-quarter miles:—

Insurance Offices
Public Offices:
    Clerk's Office
    Registrar's Office
    Post Office
Printing Office
Attorney's Offices
Stores and Shops
Licensed Taverns
Dwelling Houses
Places of Worship
Flour Mill
Carding Mill
Fulling Mill
Double Saw Mill
(These figures taken from Baird's "Seventy Years" of New Brunswick Life).

*  This item of No Church in Hardscrabble is an error, as the Presbyterian Church was established there in 1838. — Mrs. Maud M. Miller.

"The Sharp & Shea Nurseries were started in Upper Woodstock in 1848."

"In 1852 the First Agricultural Exhibition was held at the Court House at Upper Woodstock and was held there each year for five years."

"Hezekiah Stoddard lived in Upper Woodstock in 1861 and was a house-builder of some note. He built the "Renfrew House" in Woodstock, named after the Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward VII of England, who travelled across Canada as Baron Renfrew in 1860."

From Colonel Baird's Book:—

"September 4, 1862, Lieutenant-Governor Hon. Arthur Hamilton Gordon visited Woodstock and reviewed Col. Baird's Rifle Company.

"The review was followed by a levee at the Court House, and by visiting the Grammar School and Mrs. Jacob's School, and also the Iron Foundry at Upper Woodstock to observe the process of drawing off the molten iron.

"His Excellency appeared to regard the operation with great interest and pleasure. After its conclusion he made a visit to the Iron Mines at Jacksonville."

From Clark McBride's "History of Carleton Co":—

"In May, 1862, the carriage of iron ore from Jacksonville to Upper Woodstock gave employment to a large number of farmers."

In writing the history of Upper Woodstock I see things and scenes and people of which my readers have no knowledge. I see a lot of boys and girls, mischievous, full of life and spirits, yet wanting to make for themselves a place in the world, fond of reading and study and everyone of them having home duties to perform after school closed. Many and many a day I was told to wash up the dinner dishes and get supper as my mother had been very busy, finishing a dress for me for school or church, or some of the neighbors were sick and had sent for my mother who was an excellent nurse, and she had lots of practice in it too. In the evenings we had home studies and lots of them, and we went to school six hours a day — from 9.00 to 12.00 and from 1.00 to 4.00 — with the month of July as a holiday, and one week at Christmas. My, what a jolly, happy lot we were, not because we had so much, but because we were taught to think life was a duty and we must make the most of it. The idea that all our teachers and mothers and fathers were good for was to pay our amusement bills, had not begun to be taught at that date. We enjoyed fun and play as much, nay a hundred times more, than the youth of today because we knew how to value it. We had enough work to do to stimulate our desire for a romp or fun. A few hours of skating on the river or a lake in the evenings, or a lovely toboggan slide, or on a large sled, in the early morning before school time in the month of March on the crust, was an aid to study. I had a large toboggan which held eight people and how we used to fly over the snow in March. The Foundry Hill would be black with young people moonlight nights in the winter, and how we enjoyed ourselves.

I see in memory Austin Hartley, Frank Sharp, Napier Hartley, John Good, Clare Good, Annie Brewer, Alice Jones, Ethel Riley, Minnie B. Sharp, Lizzie Sharp, Annie Hipwell, Mary Hipwell, Lizzie Smith, Harry Hipwell, Robert Fitzsimmons, Georgie Good, George Clayton, Randolph Good, Maggie Cadman, Norris Cadman, Hattie Harvey, Jennie Sharp, Alfred A. Brewer, Ida Brewer, and many others.

The older people of the village were all good people, God-fearing and industrious. No one was rich. Every one had to scrape and save, and we all knew the value of a dollar. We all were taught to go to Church and Sabbath School, and we had a very good Temperance Society, and nearly everyone was temperate or a total abstainer, which is better. We had a few bad drunkards, who stood as a lesson for the other people. In the state of morality a fallen woman was a sight we had not seen in our little village, and if such there were we young people did not know it. I surely deplore the tendency of such ribald talk as the young folk of today listen to. We were not allowed to go to horse trots then, and now the Exhibitions make that one of the drawing cards. Gambling, drinking, profanity, and immorality were spoken against and the ministers of the Gospel thought it their duty to speak out in no uncertain tone about these vices. When have you heard a rousing temperance sermon — just when?

Our Government has gone into the rum business, and is pushing the sales of liquor with an impetus unheard of in the old days. A rumseller was not an aristocrat in those days, but was looked down upon as a law-breaker, which he was, — but now the Government sign is over the nefarious business of killing mens' souls; and because the Government is running the business people are being educated to think it is all right. The rum you buy at a Government store will make you just as drunk as if you bought it from a bootlegger; and why look down on a bootlegger and uphold the Government? This matter is not Liberal or Conservative. One party caters to the rum element just the same as the other, and now they say the Government has so much money tied up in the plant they could not afford to scrap it. Better, they think, to curse our rising generation with drunkard's homes, business failures, and broken lives, and crimes that begin in the rum glass. THINK OF IT. Weigh your son or daughter's life and hopes against this business and see which is more important.



Chapter II.


I am going to give you in detail the beginning and the working of the Iron Mining in Upper Woodstock, and I hope you will read it carefully, and see if something might not be done to resuscitate this industry now when iron is so much needed in the war-effort of the Empire.

"In the year 1848 the Woodstock Institute was incorporated for lectures for the instruction of the people in physics, literature, and other branches of science, and at the same time a Framer's and Mechanic's Library was established at Upper Woodstock, which upper village still kept up a stiff opposition with "The Creek" as Woodstock was called. The iron mines at Jacksonville and the smelting plant at Upper Woodstock were at this date in full blast and Upper Woodstock was a thriving business village. Mr. Norris Best was in charge of the Iron Works — The York and Carleton Mining Company."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal 1837-38 (Sir John Harvey, Lieutenant-Governor):—

"Mr. Taylor, by leave, presented a Petition from Richard Ketchum of Woodstock, in the County of Carleton, praying an Act may pass incorporating certain persons under the name of the Carleton Mining Company which he read.

"Ordered that this Petition be received and lie on the Table.

"January 16, 1838 — Mr. Taylor then moved for leave to bring in this Bill to incorporate The Carleton Mining Company.   Granted."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal 1847:—

"Mr. Fisher moved for leave to bring in a Bill to incorporate Carleton Mining Company — Leave Granted. First reading, March 2, 1847. Sir W. M. G. Colebrooke was Lieutenant-Governor at that time.

"March 3rd — Second reading. The whole House studied Bill to incorporate Carleton Mining Company.

"March 13th — They reported progress.

"March 15th — The Bill was passed as The York & Carleton Mining Co.

"Mr. Tibbits also by leave presented a Petition signed by Adam B. Sharp, Esq., and 63 others from Carleton County of a like prayer in reference to the Iron Mines in that County, which he read. This was also reported to a committee."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal February 10, 1848:—

"Mr. Partelow, by leave, presented a petition from James Moran, Thomas Vaughan, Henry Vaughan, Owens and Duncan, James Smith, Harris and Allen, and James Harris, proprietors of the York & Carleton Mining Company, praying the interposition of the House for an extension of their lease; which he read.

"Ordered:   That the said Petition be received and referred to a select committee to report thereon, and further ordered:— That Mr. Partelow, Mr. L. A. Wilmot, and Mr. Hannington do compose the said committee.

"Mr. Partelow, also by leave, presented a Petition from the York & Carleton Mining Company, incorporated by Act of Assembly, praying the interposition of the House to enable them to obtain a tract of woodland in the vicinity of their Works to aid them in their operations; which he read.

"Ordered:— That this Petition be received and referred to the same committee to report thereon."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal February 11, 1848:—

"A Petition was presented February 11, 1848, signed by James Moran, Thomas Vaughan, Henry Vaughan, Owens and Duncan, James Smith, Harris and Allen, and James Harris, proprietors of the York & Carleton Mining Co. praying aid towards a Railway which they contemplated making on the Public Road now laid out from Jackson Town, in the County of Carleton, leading past their mines."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal March 28, 1848:—

"Resolved:   That there be granted to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Govrnor or Administrator of the Government for the time being, a sum not exceeding £250 towards enabling the York & Carleton Mining Company to open and establish an effective communication either by railway or otherwise, between their Works and their ores and minerals in the vicinity of their establishment.

"To His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator of the Government for the time being, the sum of £198/18s. for extraordinary contingencies for past years."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal 1849:—

"Mr. Connell, by leave, peresented a Petition from Charles Emery, Ralph Ketchum, J. F. W. Winslow, and ninety others, inhabitants of the Parishes of Woodstock and Wakefield, in the County of Carleton, praying a further Grant may pass to enable the York & Carleton Mining Company to open a Road from the Mines to where their Works are erected, wihch he read.

"Ordered:   That the said Petition be received and lie on the Table.

"To His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator of the Government for the time being, the sum of £—— towards enabling the York and Carleton Mining Company to grade the road between their works and the ores and minerals in the vicinity of their establishment, preparatory to a Railway which they contemplate laying down on the said road.

"Upon the question for the sustaining of this Resolution, the committee divided and it was decided in the negative."

Fropm the Johnston's Agricultural Report of New Brunswick 1849 by J. F. W. Johnston, F.R.S., S.L. & E., Honorary Member of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, and Author of "Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology"):

J. Simpson, Printer to the Queen's
Most Excellent Majesty
— 1850 —

These reports have been obtained rom Reports of Dr. Gesner, late Provincial Geologist and from his published work on New Brunswick:—

"As to mines of lead and copper none of any certain value have yet been discovered though the geological structure of the country by no means forbids the hope of hereafter finding veins of these metals, which may be worked with profit.

"Ores of iron abound in some localities, and especially the haematite variety now smelted in the neighborhood of Woodstock. In the absence of coal this ore may be smelted as somewhat similar ores are in Sweden, so as to form a valuable article of home production for home use, and even for exportation; but it cannot hope to compete in the great iron market of the world with the productions of the numerous quick-working furnaces which are fed with fossil fuel."

That this ore is very abundant appears from the following remarks of Dr. Gesner, which I extract from his third Report:—

"About two and a half miles from Woodstock and near the main road leading through Jackson Town there is a very extensive and valuable bed of Iron Ore on land belonging to Col. Ketchum. This ore is interstratified with the slate, and like the strata on each side extends from W.S.W. to N.N.E. in layers nearly perpendicular. This deposit of iron had been supposed to exist in one stratum, but upon examination, I found it laid in three separate beds. Measuring across the out-cropping and the strata, it appears at the surface in the following manner:—

Clay Slate
  Total thickness of ore — 70 feet.

"Thjese beds of iron can be traced to the distance of half a mile; they doubtless exttend to a great distance, and may hereafter be found crossing the Saint John. The ore itself is distinctly stratified, and conforms to the position of the strata of slate; and the difference of quality in different beds is not such as will materially affect its properties for working in a furnace. The ore is a compact red or reddish-brown haematite or the hydrous peroxide of iron. Wherever it is exposed to the atmosphere its colour becomes changed to black or dark blue. The analysis of a specimen from the middle of the bed gave—

Peroxide of Iron
  (Peroxide of Manganese, a trace)

"The discovery of this great deposit of Iron in the County of Carleton was claimed as late as 1836, but it is well known that specimens of the ore had been sent abroad and examined as early as 1820; and its existence was known to the first inhabitants of Woodstock."

Bibliography — Abner Gesner Geological Report 1842:— Ore was sent abroad and examined as early as 1820.

Geological Survey of Canada No. 10 Volume 1897:—

"What ore commonly known as Woodstock haematite beds, were first brought to the public notice in the year 1836, by Dr. C. T. Jackson, of Boston, in connection with a geological survey of portions of the State of Maine, then being made by him.

"Subsequently explanations made by officers of the Canadian Geological Survey and others, showed that these beds probably in more than one belt, extend across the principal part of Carleton County. (See Annual Report Geological Survey Volume I (N. S.) 1865 p. 20 G) but have their greatest thickness and are most readily accessible in Jackson Town about three miles northeast of the Town of Woodstock. They are here, as elsewhere, associated with a series of slates usually bluish or grayish in colour, and highly calcareous, but, when in connection with the iron ore, commonly become more or less greenish or reddish. At various points, though not at Jackson Town, the slates are associated with beds of limestone, and in both are contained fossils showing them to be members of the Silurian system.

"As seen at Jacksontown and vicinity, the ore-beds are quite numerous, having a thickness ranging from one to sixteen feet, and are comformable to the inclosing slates which usually dip north-westerly at an angle of 85 degrees, although in places much contorted.

"In places they contain considerable quantites of manganese, which also often gives a black colour to the slates, while occasionally green stainings indicate the presence of copper.

"The ores also vary in composition, usually yielding water when heated, and consisting of admixtures of limonite and haematite. The average of six analysis of ore from Iron Ore Hill, made by Mr. John Mitchell, of London, and quoted by Dr. Ells gave:—

Metallic Iron
Sulphuric Acid
Phosphoric Acid

"The first attempt to utilize the Jacksontown ores was made in 1848, when a blast furnace was erected by the Woodstock Charcoal Iron Company upon the bank of the Saint John River, a short distance above Upper Woodstock, and about two miles and a half from the ore beds. Ore was obtained by the ordinary process of quarrying, and according to information supplied to the writer by the manager, Mr. Norris Best, were charged as follows:—


"According to statements quoted by Dr. Harrington 3.33 tons of ore and 126 bushels of charcoal were required to make a ton of pigiron, the charcoal in 1865 costing seven cents a bushel. There were ten charcoal kilns, having an average capacity of 75 cords of wood and a production of 2,800 to 3,200 bushels of coal. The quantity of ore used was, on an average, three tons to a ton of pig, and the cost at the furnace $1.20 per ton. The cost of pig produced was $20.00 to $22.00 per ton.

"The first furnace erected in 1848, was 39 feet high, 33 feet square at base, 9¾ feet at bashes, with three tuyere arches, and a capacity of about seven tons a day, while a later one, and smaller, was built in 1863, was enclosed in barter plate, had a circumference of 40 feet, and a capacity of 5½ tons per day. Both were lined with Stourbridge brick, a sandstone from the Gulquac, one of the tributaries of the Tobique, being used as a hearth. The "hot blast" was used, the steam necessary for the purpose being obtained from suitable boilers, which were in turn heated by combustion of waste gas from the furnace head. The average duration of each crucible and hearth was about 24 weeks, during which time an average production of 50 tons per week was attained. The limestone employed as a flux, was obtained from the Beccaguimec River, seven miles distant from the furnaces. The operations were subject to numerous interruptions made necessary for repairs, and it is stated that the whole time during which the principal furnace was in blast was only about eight years (Dr. B. J. Harrington).

"Iron smelting at Woodstock is now, however, a thing of the past. Is it possible to look forward to a resumption of operations?

"In attempting to answer this question many considerations arise, the main one being, of course, the cost of manufacture and transportation to market. The figures given are based upon conditions at time of working, or about thirty years ago (1867). Since then a much larger proprotion of Carleton County has been denuded of forest, especially in the vicinity of Jacksontown and the cost of fuel has been considerably increased. It is not, however, probable that this alone would prevent the ores being worked, more especially as their position, on the bank of the St. John River is in every way favourable to the easy and cheap removal of the product. A more serious difficulty is to be found in the nature of the product itself, which owing to the high percentage of phosphorus, was often found to be brittle or cold — short to a degree, which detracted very materially from its value.

"On the other hand, it is difficult to reconcile this deficiency with the statement given as to experiments made in England with armour plates constructed of Woodstock iron, which according to a paper by Mr. Wm. Fairbairn, F.R.S., published in the "Artisan" had a resistance in excess of that of any other plates then tested, or a tensile strength in tons per square inch of 24—80.

"It is also observed that the presence of phosphorus is not now the serious objection to the use of iron ores that it formerly was, the introduction of the basic process of Thomas and Gilchrist, making it possible to reduce such ores effectively.

"It is also not impossible that processes may be introduced whereby the extensive deposits of nickeliferous pyrrhotite occurring near St. Stephen, may be used in connection with the Woodstock ores, the combination after the removal of sulphur, affording an iron suited for the manufacture of armour plate. While then, it is doubtful whether, in the present condition of the iron industry, and in the face of adverse tariffs the Woodstock ores could be worked with profit, they must still be looked upon as valuable assets, which changed methods of treatment and changed commercial conditions, may at any time bring again into prominence."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal, 1850:—

"The Honorable Mr. Partelow, also by leave, presented a Petition from the President, Dirctors, and Stock Holders of the York & Carleton Mining Company setting forth that their Establishment was totally destroyed by fire in September last, and praying relief to enable them to erect more substantial buildings; which he read.

"Ordered, that the said Petition be received and lie on the Table."

From Clark McBride's "History of Carleton County" we have the following:—

"An extensive business in the manufacture of iron was carried on for several years at Jacksonville and Upper Woodstock. The mines were situated about a mile north-east of Jacksonville Corner. Here is a description of what was going on in May, 1863:  The carriage of the ore to the iron works at Upper Woodstock, gives employment to a large number of farmers. Two high-pressure steam engines of 30 h.p. each, two blowing cylinders, 60 inches in diameter, with a five-foot stroke and a wind receiver capacity of 450 cubic feet; three boilers 28 feet long and 3 feet in diameter, with two flues in each; a heating oven on the top of the furnace capable of heating the wind for the blast to 800 degrees; a blast furnace, 37 feet high, 10 feet wide at the bottom and six feet at the top; such were the equipment for manufacturing the iron at the works. The first process to which the ore was subjected, was baking. This expels the sulphur and water from the ore. Raw ore contains ten per cent of water. The baked ore after being broken up is then ready for the blast furnace, into which it is put with a due proportion of coal and lime; from thence it passes out as pig iron.

"There were ten brick kilns for making charcoal, with a capacity of 510 cords of wood, and yielding 75,000 bushels of coal a month, and consuming 10,000 cords of wood a year. One hundred men were employed. The average wages were $1.75 a day, $42,000 was expended annually. All the pig iron was sent to England and used for the iron plating of the ships in the Royal Navy.

"In 1864, 21 teams were employed in hauling ore from the mines to the works at Upper Woodstock, a distance of about three miles. These teams hauled on an average about seven and a half tons each a day, and together they hauled 1,215 tons a week. Forty cents a ton was paid for hauling. Besides these there were a number of teams hauling charcoal from pits in Williamstown and elsewhere. It is said that the large hill from which the ore was obtained, is a solid mass of iron and has been merely scratched on its surface by the operations of those days; that there still remains vast quantities of iron ore waiting for the day when some man or men with capital, enterprise and the welfare of the laboring classes of Carleton County to heart will 'start the wheels of industry' again and furnish employment that is so badly needed in these days of industrial stagnation in our country."

From the Journal of House of Assembly of New Brunswick, 1865.


"In the vicinity of Woodstock Iron Furnaces there is a remarkable outlier of ferruginous conglomerate, with a strike of N 35E, and dip 50 deg. south-westerly resting unconformably upon the Lower Silurian Slates, which have a strike North and South, and a westerly dip at a right angle, about 200 yards west of the conglomerates.

"This conglomerate is stated by Mr. C. H. Hitchcock to occur again at a ferry about nine miles above Woodstock, dipping 25 deg. Northwest. Some of the strata are fine grained, with impressions of rain drops. A few of the pebbles, according to the same authority, are encased in gypsum, and the conglomerate is considered to be of the same age as the Tobique outlier. Without expressing any opinion as to the age of this rock, the following analysis shows it to have been formed chiefly from the debris of the red ferruginous and manganesian slates which form the source of the ore of the Woodstock Iron Mines. From information obtained on the spot it appears probable that a considerable area of this conglomerate occurs in Brighton Parish, from which its age may be determined. Near Woodstock it rests upon the Lower Silurian Slates unconformably but inclined in the same direction; the underlying slates being tilted at a high angle with a westerly dip, the conglomerate dipping also westerly at an angle of about fifty degrees.

"Chemical composition of the Conglomerate Outlier near Woodstock:—

Peroxide of Iron
Oxide of Manganese
Sulphuric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Carbonic Acid and Water
Metallic Iron

"This analysis was kindly supplied by Norris Best, Esq., one of the proprietors of the Woodstock Iron Works."

Assembly Journal 1865.  Chapter 9, Page 161.  Reports continued—


"These ores are vast sedimentary deposits many feet in thickness, interstratified with red and gren argillites, or with calcareo-magnesian slates, of a red or green, or mottled red and green colour. The ores vary in composition, being both red and black, the black is sometimes feebly magnetic but it derives its colour more from the presence of manganese than from the black magnetic oxide. The red ore is an impure haematite, containing beside the peroxide of iron, some carbonate of the peroxide, and from one to six per cent of manganese; it is often seamed with thin layers of graphite. The most characteristic of the earthy admixtures are from two to five per cent of magnesia, and from .064 to nearly two per cent of phosphoric acid.

"The mean of eight analysis gave 32 68/100 per cent of iron from the ores worked at the furnaces. Some of the samples yielded as high as 48 per cent of metallic iron, some as low as 19 per cent. 32 seems to be about the average as per the accompanying table.


Peroxide of Iron
Oxide of Magnanese
Sulphuric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Car. Acid and Water
Metallic Iron

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

Mean of these eight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.683.

This table was given to me by Norris Best, one of the proprietors of the Woodstock Iron Works. The analyses were made by chemists in England of known reputation.

The iron produced at the Woodstock Iron Company's furnaces is of a very superior quality. Its colour is silver gray; its density is equal to that of some of the best hammered iron; it makes excellent steel and possesses great toughness or resisting power.

The resistance in tons per square inch of

Yorkshire Iron is
Derbyshire Iron is
Shropshire Iron is
Staffordshire Iron is
Woodstock Iron is
24.50 tons
20.25 tons
22.50 tons
20.00 tons
24.80 tons


The capacity of these works, with one furnace in operation (and one in process of erection) is stated to be six tons and a quarter of iron per day; the furnace continues in blast for about twenty-four weeks, six weeks being necessary for half-yearly repairs, so that the actual producing time is about 43 weeks in a year; this would give, at 50 tons a week, the produce of one furnace about 2,150 tons per annum. Each of the British Iron-Clad Frigates require from 800 to 1,050 tons of iron for plates, so that two furnaces which may be supposed to be in operation in the early part of 1865 would not be able to supply more than enough iron per annum to cover four first-class frigates.

At this rate it would take two or three generations to remodel the British Navy. Whenever the demand is made, however, and there is a demand for far more than can be supplied, there is ore and fuel enough for fifty furnaces, for on the east side of the River St. John, the country is still unbroken forest, except on the borders of the streams.

No doubt it would be extensively used in the British and foreign navies, if enough iron could be obtained with sufficient despatch. There is a splendid opening for the employment of capital in this direction, and ore and fuel in abundance for many years to come. The whole question is one of very considerable interest and will bear the strictest scrutiny.

In a Report presented to the Woodstock Athenaeum February 11, 1862, it is said:  "The following statistics regarding the present works and the extent of the iron beds have been kindly furnished by Mr. Norris Best, Manager of the Charcoal Iron Works at Upper Woodstock.

The quantity of wood required for the operations of these works in 1864 is estimated at 12,000 cords, which will strip say 400 acres. Evidently with this consumption annually added to that necessary for the ordinary purposes of the Countuy, wood must go up in price, and the expense of producing Charcoal Iron must be increased. But the present works furnish a very considerable addition to the business of the county; and would provide an item in Railway traffic of no small importance.

The estimated production of pig iron for 1864 is 2,750 tons, employing at the mine and about the furnaces and works — 75 men. Twelve teams, with their drivers, find constant employment in hauling the ore, while to cut the wood requires 150 men for 12 weeks and to haul it some sixty men and their teams for the same length of time.

The down freight of the pig iron for 1864 is estimated at $5,500.00. During the winter the iron, in order to keep up a regular supply for the English market, has to be hauled on sleds to the Houlton Road Terminus of the St. Andrews Railroad, a distance of nine miles, thence sent by rail to St. Andrews and from there shipped by schooner to St. John, and every ton thus transported from Woodstock to St. John costs one dollar and twenty-five cents additional.

Continuation of Report from Assembly Journal 1865.   Page 163.

"With a railway communication betwen Woodstock and Saint John, the iron could be sent for two dollars throughout the year, and thus on one-half the quantity produced there would be a saving in transport within the Province of one dollar and a quarter per ton. The up-freight for the Works is estimated for 1864 at $4,500. Thus for 1864, from the works of the Iron Company alone, the proposed railway would receive a traffic at present worth $10,000.

"Mr. Best states to your committee that if there were continuous railway communication from Saint John to Woodstock, so that mineral coal could be delivered at the works at the rate of 1½ cents per ton per mile, it could be used profitably for iron smelting in this County; and that every description of iron, whether for the varied uses to which malleable iron is put, or for castings, could be produced in Carleton County and sent to Saint John at a price so low as to compete successfully with English and Scotch irons. In fact, the result would be that three-fourths of the importation of British and foreign iron would cease."

1850 — Lease granted to York & Carleton Mining Co. Lease Nos. 20, 21, 22, to expire January 11, 1875.

The Sixth Annual Report of the Crown Land Department, Province of New Brunswick for year ending October 31, 1866. Hon. Charles Connell, Surveyor General.

Feb. 5, 1866.   Norris Best (York and Carleton Co.) paid royalty for iron smelted to Dec. 31, 1865, at 1 penny per ton.
$  7.68
April 27, 1866.   Norris Best (York & Catleton Co.) paid royalty for iron smelted to March 31, 1866, at 1 penny per ton.
August 31, 1866.   Norris Best (York & Carleton Co.) paid royalty for iron smelted to June 30, 1866, at 1 penny per ton.
$  9.78
Oct. 30, 1866.   Iron smelted to Sept. 30, 1866.

The Annual Report of the Crown Land Department, Province of New Brunswick for year ending October 31, 1867.

Feb. 21, 1867.   Norris Best (York & Carleton Co.) paid royalty for iron smelted at 1 penny per ton.
$  5.81
Oct. 31, 1869.   Norris Best (York & Carleton Co.) paid royalty for iron smelted at 1 penny per ton.
$  9.20

Extract from "CANADA AND ITS PROVINCES" Volume 14.   Page 689.


"The manuracture of iron and steel has never been an important industry in New Brunswick, although the existence of extensive deposits of iron ore in the Province has long been known. One of the most important occurrences of iron ore was reported near Woodstock, Carleton County, as early as 1820. These deposits were brought to wide public notice in 1836 by Dr. C. T. Jackson in a geological survey of portions of the State of Maine. In 1848 a charcoal iron blast furncace was erected by the Woodstock Charcoal Iron Company upon the St. John River, a short distance above Upper Woodstock. The ore was quarried, and in smelting it about three tons of ore were required for each ton of pig iron produced. The furnace had a capacity of about seven tons a day. The manufactured pig-iron cost from twenty to twenty-two dollars per ton. Another charcoal furnace with a capacity of five and a half tons a day was erected in 1868. The pig iron is reported to have contained a high percentage of phosphorous although some of it was successfully used in the manuracture of armour plates in England. The works were operated only spasmodically for a few years. During the latter period of the operations at Woodstock, bog iron ores from Sunbury were mixed with the Woodstock ores to improve the grade of pig-iron."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal, 1865.   Page 164.


"The red and green slates with which this ore is interstratified are very widely distributed, as already stated, in a notheasterly direction, extending in fact as far as the Nipisiguit, a distance of more than one hundred and twenty miles. It is probable that owing to local disturbances there will be large breaks in these deposits, and the ores may be found equally rich throughout the distribution of the red and gren slates, but they are known to occur in inexhaustable quantities on the east side of the St. John River, where they appear in probably greater force than at Jacksontown, on the west side of the river, from which the Woodstock Iron Works are supplied.

"On Mr. William Clark's lot, through which the Pole Hill road passes, about 5½ miles from the River St. John, the red slates with black iron ore are seen in places on the west side of the road. These are most probably the Jacksontown beds brought to the surface by a third undulation.

"A broad band of limestone deeply creviced, occurs within a mile to the southeast of these iron deposits. It is from this source that the lime for smelting purposes at the Woodstock Iron Works is obtained."

Minutes from the Assembly Journal, 1865.   Page 165.


"It appears clearly established that on the east side of the St. John there are not less than three undulations which have brought up the red and green slates with their iron ores and associated beds of limestone. These immense deposits of ore occur in a country possessing an excellent agricultural soil, a splendid forest of birch, beech, spruce, and maple, and limestone in abundance. It will not fail to be noticed that these are elements of local industry belonging to the highest class for the ore yields an iron of very superior quality, which has been thoroughly tested in the United States and England, and if it be considered advisable to smelt it on the spot there is abundance of timber for fuel, lime for fluxing, labour for collecting the ore, and preparing the fuel, and an excellent agricultural country as the basis of the whole industiral system. Now that this iron has met with so much favour in England, it is not improbable that it may yet be profitable to export the best quality of ore from those beds which are near to the St. John. Under any circumstances it is probable that in a short time the abundance of fuel, either as coal, or gas from the highly bituminous shales in Sussex Vale, both of which are cheaply procurable in the lower portion of the river, will render the construction of gas furnaces for obtaining iron of a very superior quality a matter of pecuniary advantage and provincial importance.

"Red slates were seen on the southeast side of the axis, within ten miles of Boiestown on the Miramichi, but they were not especially examined for iron ores. Higher up the river the rocks are very ferruginous, but no details can be given respecting them."

Minutes of the Assembly Journal, 1865.   Page 166.


"In Derbyshire (England) the following is the proportion of ore and fuel consumed and metal produced:—

Mineral coal
Metal produced
2 tons
2 tons
1 ton  
12 cwt.

"In Straffordshire:—

Mineral coal
Metal produced
2 tons
2 tons
1 ton  
7 cwt.
8 cwt.

"In Dordogne (France):—

Metal produced
2 tons
1 ton  
1 ton  
7 cwt.
3 cwt.

"Woodstock, N. B.:—

Metal produced
3 tons
1 ton  
6 cwt.

"This estimate is based on the statement kindly made by one of the proprietors, Mr. Norris Best, in a letter addressed to me under date February 11, 1865.

"Mr. Best states that the average proportion of materials used during the past year has been as subjoined:—


"The average yield of the ores is assumed to be 30 per cent of pure metal.

(See Table of Analysis, quoted previously, from Chapter 9, page 161, of Assembly Journal).

"Then 1,180 lbs. of ore will yield 35 lbs. of metal, or one ton of 2,240 lbs. will require 3.33 tons of ore, and 126 bushels of charcoal, which at seven cents a bushel, the price Mr. Best states he is paying on the 11th of February will cost $8.82 which is the actual cost of fuel, per ton, according to above data.

"At Dordogne, the cost of charcoal for the production of one ton of iron is at the least $11.60; and in France, generally the average price of charcoal would raise the cost of every ton of iron to $14.80 for charcoal fuel alone.

"For the further conversion of cast iron into wrought iron, there is required in England about one and one-third tons of cast iron and from two to two and a half tons of mineral coal, while the same amount of cast iron of the Dordogne requires a ton and a half of charcoal to convert it into a ton of wrought iron. In England, a ton of wrought iron requires about five tons of mineral coal for its fabrication. In France, a little over three tons of wood charcoal at $11.60 a ton, the minimum price of charcoal there.

"It is clear that the price of charcoal in the vicinity of Woodstock will rise in the course of a few years and then the question of a supply of fuel for smelting purposes will have to be vigorously met, or as in Canada, it will be necessary to move the furnaces where ore and fuel are still abundant, without the construction of a Railway enables coal to be delivered at a rate sufficiently low to admit of its being used for smelting purposes. But there are other parts of the Province where ores of iron and fuel exist in abundance together, and where gas fuel can be employed with advantage."

From the Assembly Journal, 1865.   Page 107.

"It is a highly important fact that the Woodstock ores, which contain a considerable proportion of manganese, phosphorous, and silicious matter, should produce an excellent iron capable of being made into excellent steel, and we may, in the absence of definite experiment, conclude that it derives these valuable properties from the large amount of carbon it is capable of combining with, without degenerating into cast iron.

"Hence, even should the price of charcoal rise considerably higher than it now is in the vicinity of the works, the remarkable quality of the ores will still yield a remunerative return; and it will become a question of simple arithmetical calculation whether it will be most economical to bring the ores to the fuel or the fuel to the ores.

From the Minutes of the Assembly Journal of 1866, 8th of March.   Page 14.

"On motion of Mr. M'Cleland:

"Resolved,  That a committee be appointed to whom shall be referred all matters relating to Mining Interests.

"Ordered,  That Mr. M'Cleland, Mr. Bailey, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Connell and Mr. Wilmot, do compose the said committee."

From the Minutes of the Assembly Journal of 1866, 21st of June.   Page 85.

"On motion of Mr. Lewis:

"Resolved,  That a committee be appointed to whom shall be referred all matters relating to Mining Interests of this Province.

"Ordered,  That Mr. Lewis, Mr. Lindsay, Mr. Beckwith, Mr. Hibbard, and Mr. Babbit do compose the said committee."

You will see from the above reports that all matters concerning the mining operations in the Province were now brought before the Mining Committee to be considered, before being brought before the House.

From the Minutes of the Assembly Journal, 1881, Appendix Page 32.

The following is from a report of Mr. Edward Jack, one of the Deputy Crown Land Surveyors.


"During the summer of 1873, in company with A. F. Wendt, Esq., M.E., I proceeded to Woodstock in the County of Carleton, and visited the iron works about one and a half miles distant from that town, and which were then idle.

"We examined the iron ore hill, where we found the ore very abundant in beds varying in thickness from one to sixteen feet; it is a silicious haematite; from such of these as were uncovered we selected specimens; these when carefully assayed by Mr. Wendt afterwards in New York, gave a very high percentage of phosphorous. Mr. Wendt also made in New York an assay of the pig iron made at these works, it yielded 1,032 of phosphorous. Of this substance Banerman says, 'Phosphorous is one of the most unwelcome ingredients of iron ores, from the ease with which it passes into metal during the smelting process, producing the most injurious effect if presented in more than a very small proportion.'

"The effect of phosphorous on iron is to render it cold, short or brittle, when cold, and although by late discoveries, processes can be made use of by which the phosphorous can be removed, they are always more or less expensive, and when an ore is so silicious as that which has heretofore been worked at Woodstock (the averge of eight assays by Mitchell showing 21 per cent of silica) its quality cannot be regarded as superior.

"Mr. Wendt's opinion was that there were indeed beds in the locality which contained but little phosphorous, but that it would take a long and expensive investigation to prove their position and extent.

"In the year 1874, in company with R. W. Ells of the Geological Survey of Canada, I again visited the ore beds of Carleton County, extending our researches as far as Glassville, where we found them numerous.

"We also visited the Becaguimec, where ore beds are also to be found. None of the iron deposits which we examined appeared to be very rich in that metal, but were especially noticeable for the manganese with which many of them abound, one near Love's Corner containing 25 per cent of this metal.

"The iron ore deposits of Carleton are of great extent, and are indicated usually by the occurrence of purple and often green slates; they constitute a series of beds nearly parallel to one another; these are often of great thickness and can be easily and cheaply quarried. Near Flannigan's hill some of these are crossed by the New Brunswick Railway.

"Careful and detailed explorations of the ore districts on both sides of the St. John, accompanied by frequent analyses, may reveal localities in which the ore may be found to be richer in the metal and less affected by injurious substances than that formerly used at the Woodstock works. The subject is one well worth public attention.


"Several energetic gentlemen have lately become the purchasers of these, and are preparing to commence smelting operations so soon as they shall have sufficient charcoal provided. The works have been placed in complete repair, new buildings erected and many improvements effected. They are using the old furnace, which is 36 feet high, width in boshes about ten feet, diameter of crucible four feet with three tuyeres.

"There are two blowing cylinders of five feet stroke and five feet in diameter. Steam is generated in five boilers by waste gases from the blast furnace; these are also used for heating the blast to about 500 degrees to 600 degrees, the pressure of the blast will be about one pound to the square foot.

"The capacity of the furnace is from about 10 to 15 tons of pig iron per day. There is a smaller furnace on the premises which is not being utilized at present.


"Of these there are five rectangular ones, three at Upper Woodstock, and two at Newburg; their average capacity will probably be from 60 to 65 cords. Four new beehive kilns have been erected at the works, their average capacity is from 48 to 50 cords, each cord yielding from 40 to 42 bushels of charcoal. As the New Brunswick Railway will cross the St. John River in the vicinity of Woodstock iron works, thereby giving them railway communications with the great maple and birch districts of New Buunswick, their sources of supply of charcoal may be considered as inexhaustible.

"Within a few weeks the Woodstock iron company have commenced using the bog iron ore which is found on the Bank's place on the east side of the St. John four miles below Fredericton, for the purpose of using it as a mining ore. They pay for this fifty cents per ton on the ground, roast it in piles and haul the calcined ore to Gibson, whence it is to be transported to the works by rail.

"I have not had time to examine the deposits of ore at Bank's farm which the company are working. It occurs in a bed which is said to vary in thickness from six inches to three feet; its situation is but a short distance below the furnace, hence it is easily removed by trenching.

"This ore is of the same kind as that which is used at the Katahdin iron works, where it is found on or near the surface of the hills in the vicinity of the furnace, more or less intermined with smaller or larger stones which are cemented together by it. There are two kinds of ore there, the one containing more phosphorous than the other, they are the result of the decomposition of sulphide of iron; the better ore contains but a small percentage of phosphorous. As it may be of interest to the public to know something about the manufacture of this ore at Katahdin, I give the proportion of the various substances used in a charge:

Ore (roasted)

"The furnace is 50 feet high and turns out from 15 to 18 tons of pig per day; the iron is used in the manufacture of car wheels, and commands a high price. The limestone used is brought to Milo Station by rail and thence hauled twenty miles to the furnace by teams, the iron also when manufactured has to be transported the same distance by team to the railway.

"I subjoin Mr. Wendt's analysis of the Woodstock ore and pig iron:

Loss on drying
per cwt.


Sesquioxide of iron
Manganese (oxide of)
Phosphoric acid
Sulphide of iron

Iron — 33.746."

The average of eight analyses by Mitchell of London gave Iron 32.683.


Cobalt and Nickel
Lime and Magnesia

Extract from the "Royal Gazette" 1880, January 7, Page 2, Volume 38.

"Insolvent Act of 1875
  and Amending Acts.

In the matter of Norris Best, an Insolvent

"A Writ of Attachment has been issued in this cause, and the creditors are notified to meet at my office, Ritchie's Building, Princess Street, in the City of Saiint John, New Brunswick, on Monday, the nineteenth day of January instant, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, to receive statements of his affairs, and to appoint an Assignee if they see fit.

"Dated at the City of Saint John, New Brunswick, this 6th day of January, 1880.

"E. M'Leod, Assignee."      

From the "Royal Gazette" January 21st we find that Ezekiel M'Leod, Saint John, was appointed Assignee.

From the "Royal Gazette" March 3, 1880, Volume 38.

"A meeting of the creditors of the above named Insolvent will be held at my office, Ritchie's Building, Princess Street, in the City of Saint John New Brunswick, on Monday the twenty-second day of March, instant, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, to take into consideration a Deed of Composition and Discharge under the said Act, filed by the said Insolvent, whereby he agrees to pay his creditors a composition of twenty cents on the dollar of their respective claims against him, in three, six, and nine months from the date of confirmation of the said Deed of Composition and Discharge by his creditors, secured by endorsements of Allen Brothers.

"Dated the 2nd day of March, 1880.

"E. M'Leod, Assignee."      

We presume that this was the end of the York & Carleton Mining Co., and the extract below shows the formation of the new company which carried on the iron works but a few years.

From the "Royal Gazette" 1880, Page 434, Volume 38.

"Government Notice
Under Chapter 98 of Consolidated Statutes

"These are to certify, that Charles H. Salisbury and Lycurgus Sales, of Providence, Rhode Island, and Franklin Greene, of East Greenwich, Rhode Island, J. JH. Sturdy, of Massachusetts, all of the United States of America, and Thomas Watson, Jr., of Whitby, Yorkshire, England, have filed in the Office of the Provincial Secretary a Memorandum of Association for the incorporation of a Company to be styled 'The Woodstock Iron Company.'

"The object of the Company is the mining and manufacturing of Iron and Wood Acids, and other business incidental thereto, with a Capital of Twenty Thousand Dollars ($20,000) to be divided into two thousand shares of one hundred dollars ($100) each, and stating that the office or principal place of business is to be at Upper Woodstock, in the County of Carleton.

"Dated at Fredericton, the 9th day of November, A.D. 1880.

"Wm. Wedderburn.      

"The above Memorandum of Association is filed by Order in Council of date the 9th day of November, A.D. 1880."

From the "Liberal Monthly" August, 1939.

"Between 1848 and 1884 about 70,000 tons of low-grade iron ore were smelted in a furnace near Woodstock, N. B."

I could not find any further information but I am not sure — that 1884 is the date that the Works closed; they might have been still running in 1892. I knew Mr. Green very well — and that makes me think the date might have been in the early nineties. You can see that this iron made wonderful plating for the battleships, and I cannot see why these mines should not be opened up once more, now that we need iron again so badly.



Chapter III.


In 1835 the merchants and business men of St. Andrews got together and held a meeting for the purpose of organizing a company under the name of the St. Andrews and Quebec Railway. Military engineers were engaged to survey the route and prove its feasibility. "The Ashburton Treaty of 1842, however, brought this to a standstill as the projected road was to have run through the country that was ceded by that Treaty to the United States. However, in 1860, the road was opened from St. Andrews as far as Canterbury. In July, 1862, it went as far as Richmond, four miles from Houlton, and eight miles from Woodstock."

"In September, 1868, the branch from Debec to Woodstock was opened. There was no railroad north of Woodstock at that date."

"The name of the company was changed to The New Brunswick Railroad Company, April, 1870." "On January 14th, 1872, an agreement was entered into, by which the New Brunswick Railway Co. would build a railway from St. Mary's (opposite Fredericton, York County), to Edmundston, Victoria County, on the eastern side of the river, but to include a bridge across the St. John River, at Woodstock." "The first sod was turned at St. Mary's for the Riviere De Loup Railway on May 7, 1872. The company was given 10,000 acres of land for every mile of railroad that they finished. Counting the Gibson railroad they had 170 miles completed and they received a grant of land of 1,700,000 acres."

"This railway was built 1872-1876, the line from St. Mary's to Hartland passing through the country back from the river. The trains ran as far as Kilburn, Victoria County, December 1, 1874, and as far as Edmundston in 1876."

"The railway bridge at Andover, being on the main line of railway, was built in 1875, and is supposed to be the first railway bridge to have crossed the St. John River, not excepting Saint John."

This Gibson Branch, as it was called, did not reach Woodstock. It came to Newburg Station, which was just above the farm of Col. Wm. T. Baird, and crossed the road that went back to Newburg, near Enoch Campbell's house.

There was a ferry-boat running from Woodstock at the foot of Queen Street, across to the landing just below McElroy's mill in Grafton at this time.

"The amended Act passed April 14, 1873, allowed the company to push on with the main line, and build Woodstock bridge, later, on condition that said company would commence actual construction of bridge, across the St. John river, at Woodstock, before July 1, 1874, and fully finish and complete bridge, fit for running of railway trains, by 1877. This bridge was completed in 1876, and was built to accommodate passengers underneath, and trains on top. It was situated some distance below the present railway bridge, crossing the river from above Hayden's mill to the upper end of Grafton side."

"The bridge was completed on March 17, 1876. It was 1,000 feet in length; all spans (except the draw, which is fifty feet, and the one on the western bank) are 165 feet — eight piers. This was the first bridge for horse and foot passengers between Saint John and Grand Falls."

The road to the bridge was the one they use now to go to the Woodstock Water Works, or Pumping Station, as they call it. The first floor, level with the road, was used for passengers, walking or driving teams, and above them was the railroad even with the top of the hill. This bridge was in a straight line from Peter Fisher's house, and on the Grafton side the railway ran over a high trestle past Archie Hale's house and through the garden of Col. Wm. T. Baird, then on the flat back of his house and barns, up to meet the Gibson train at Newburg Station.


April 28, 1876

"In reference to the bridge. In the night there was a thick run of ice, and it was found that the substance, in its friction with the piers left startling evidence of its destructive power, having gnawed through the hardwood casing. People had begun to realize the convenience of the bridge. A temporary approach had been made, making it accessible for teams. Coaches had begun to use it for conveying passengers to and from the depot at Northampton. Mr. Superintendent Hoben and a force of men, arrived on Saturday, and on Sunday night they had succeeded in so far repairing the damage done, as to make the present safety of the bridge secure. Traffic on the bridge has now resumed."

August 19, 1876

"Extract from agreement between Company and Government:— The said company do agree that the work of constructing said bridge shall be commenced on or before the first of July, next, and that the same shall be ready and open to the public for carriage and foot passenger traffic on or before the 1st of July, 1876."

March 31, 1877

"The Railway Bridge. The work of repairing this structure has, now, nearly reached completion. The work of securing the draw piers, by piles (crib) and heavy stone filling has been finished in a thorough manner. A pier of great strength has been built some 200 feet above the draw piers; between these piers, on either side, booms are being hung, uunder the personal supervision of Hon. W. E. Perley, who is giving careful attention to the work, which will not only serve to protect the piers from the effects of lumber and ice, but will, as well, greatly aid in the running of rafts. Four of the piers have been plated with iron, monitor style, the plates, made and fitted, having been brought from England, and placed in position under the skilful direction of Mr. A. H. Connell. Mr. F. H. Hale was the contractor for the ice-breaker, and has made a creditable job."

April 7, 1877 (Saturday)

"One of the most important events in the history of this town, or rather of the whole up-river district, transpired on Wednesday morning, (April 4th), when, for the first time, trains passed over the Railway Bridge across the St. John River, here. It was rumoured that the 'opening' would take place at 7.00 a.m., and many of our citizens left their beds at an earlier hour than usual in order to witness the inaugural ceremonies, but such were doomed for disappointment, as it was found impossible to get ready to cross at so early an hour. About ten o'clock, however, all things being in readiness — a large concourse of people having in the meantime assembled on either bank of the river, — a light locomotive carrying the following men:— T. Hoben, Superintendent; P. Logan, Locomotive Superintendent; H. W. Phillips, Conductor; E. Howard, Trackmaster, and a stoker, left the Grafton Station and slowly, but safely, made the transit of the bridge and returned. Then a heavier locomotive was run over and back; and in the afternoon a locomotive and a flat car crossed and re-crossed. Long and loud were the cheers that went up from the assembled multitudes, as the first locomotive made the trial trip, and on her coming to a standstill, many a hand was extended to grasp the hand of those who composed the crew.

"The bridge, to all appearances, was unaffected by the strain put upon her, and there is every reason to believe, as it is certainly to be hoped, that the structure will now prove to be permanently secure. We presume it will be but a few days before there will be a connection made with the N. B. & C. Railway."

May 12, 1877

"Twenty years ago Woodstock indulged in occasional dreams of having railroad connection at some time in the far future with the outside world. By-and-by the N. B. & C. road reached Richmond Station and stopped there, and there it was to stop so said the authorities, until under some fortunate provision of Providence or strong faithed capitalists, it was pushed onward further toward its objective point, in the minds of its originators, at Riviere du Loup. One thing was certain, so the wise engineers said, that no nearer approach could be made to Woodstock; that was physically impossible.

"Then came Mr. James Hartley, who presumed to question the decision of the older and more positive engineers, and satisfied the Woodstock Railway Company that a practical and favourable route could be found for a union of the town with the N. B. & C. road. The company named, or those gentlemen who inspired it, set Mr. Hartley to work, and the result was our Woodstock branch. Meantime the route of the Intercolonial was being fought on paper, and the terms North, Central and Frontier became 'familiar to our ears as household words,' but the battle went against our favourite route, and the Intercolonial was carried by the North Shore, thanks to Peter Mitchell. Well, Woodstock had intercourse to the sea, and with the west, by rail, and had made up its mind to be sublimely satisfied with being a terminus. And now the people of the County learned by experience the lesson they refused to believe when it was propounded to them by argument — they learned that, instead of the road to Woodstock resulting in a monopoly by that town of the advantages, it was the County — the people in nearly every parish — the people who had grain, or butter, or meat, or cattle or sheep to sell — that reaped the harvest of advantage. The road proved a stimulant to the trade in country produce, and the farmers have grown rich in consequence. Well, Woodstock and the County were roused from a state of being quite satisfied into a state of anxiety of expectancy, and friend Whitehead and the Missing Link came before our public. Then Mr. Gibson's fame became a popular theme, and the Narrow Gauge Road, which he and that energetic railroad creator, E. R. Burpee, proposed building from Fredericton, upward.

But why dwell upon the 'what was.' Why dwell among the speculations and theories which form links in the chain of the railroad history of the Province?

The men who were the railroad pioneers in this Province; the men who invested their means, their faith and enterprise in the St. Andrew's road, died many years ago, the work they so ardently advocated, only begun. The man who demonstrated the feasibility of bringing the track into Woodstock, by its construction, died also too young — died when there was so much for him (James Hartley) to do, — so much that few could do as well; the Intercolonial is running, and promises by its success to satisfy its advocates and disappoint those who predicted failure. The Missing Link has been found and put in place; the connection has been completed, through a considerable portion of Victoria; through the extent of Carleton, over the river twice; through Woodstock the iron artery now runs, carrying the production of the fertile Aroostook, and of the equally fertile intermediary field to the east or west or south, wherever the demands of trade invite those productions.

"Not yet complete; still north that artery is being stretched and not far away is the time, doubless, when we shall have an Intercolonial connection at Riviere du Loup. But never mind that now. Let us today be satisfied with what today gives us, and join hands with Gibson, Burpee, Osburn, and others, all and singular, who have contributed to make the railroad connections now completed at Woodstock."

September 15, 1877 (Saturday)

"The work of changing gauge of the European & North American and New Brunswick & Canada Railways is being proceeded with."

"Since Wednesday there has been a cessation of traffic, and passengers have been transferred at such points as has, each day, been reached by the gangs of men engaged in moving the rails. By Monday it is anticipated that the work on the first named road will be completed, and this will be the case on the N. B. & C. road, probably, from Woodstock to McAdam."

They built the railroad bridge at Upper Woodstock in the early 80s. The first railroad built was narrow gauge, but when the bridge was finished in 1881, they changed to the standard gauge. This railroad ran right straight up the river from Woodstock to Upper Woodstock, and over a long, high trestle-work over the island, and another short bridge on the other side. This trestle-work, clear across the island, after a few years was filled in with sand and rock; and the station was changed from down near Bairds, to Newburg, eight miles above Woodstock. The bridge that we crossed going to Newburg, over Acker's Creek, was one of the highest ever built at that time.

In a letter from Mr. T. C. Macnabb, Gen. Supt. of the Canadian Pacific Railway Eastern Division, I have the following information: "The year that the bridge opened is correct, 1881, but the records of the New Brunswick Railway Company, by which Company the bridge was built, beyond stating this fact are incomplete in detail. For your information, the Canadian Pacific did not lease this line from the New Brunswick Railway until 1890, and prior to that date we are, therefore, dependent upon that Company's records. It may interest you to learn that the structure of 1881 consisted partly of several 168-foot timber truss spans and several short timber flanking spans built over the main and east channel. The substructure of this bridge apparently consisted of rock-filled timber cribs. These (1881) spans were renewed in kind in 1897 and in 1908 the timber structure was replaced by the present bridge."

The grades on this road were very steep, both going up to Newburg Station, and coming out of Hartland, and the Railway Company changed their roadbed and built it down near the river, all the way from Hartland to Woodstock, and changed Newburg Station again, down near the Upper Woodstock bridge. The old Newburg Station was called Shewen. And the high Acker's Creek bridge was dismantled.

The passenger and railway bridge, built in 1876-77, was not used by the railroad after the Upper Woodstock bridge was built, but only as a passenger bridge. In 1892, April, the heavy flow of ice carried away two piers and part of the superstructure, and then we had to go back to the ferry days, until the new Woodstock bridge was built. This bridge was demolished, but you can still seen the first abutment on the Woodstock side of the river.

March 12, 1892

"Tenders for the new bridge across the river, at Woodstock at the foot of King Street, are advertised for. Plans and sepcifications are to be seen at the office of G. W. VanWart. Judging from the plan, the structure will be a handsome and durable one."

April 27, 1892

"Derricks and other apparatus shipped to Woodstock, from Gibson, are to be used by Mr. George Kitchen, in the construction of the Woodstock bridge."

May 14, 1892

"The foot of King Street, just now, presents a busy and attractive place. Hundreds of people visit the spot daily, to witness the bridge builders at work; operations under the personal supervision of Mr. Kitchen, one of the contractors, and the engineer, D. Brown, are being pushed with rapidity."

Also:   "Cement will be furnished by W. F. Dibblee & Son, who closed a contract with Mr. Kitchen, for one thousand barrels. W. F. Dibblee will import direct from London, and it was shipped on Thursday, the 12th, by steamer to Saint John, and will arrive here by the first of June."

This bridge was opened for traffic in 1894.

The bridge at Hartland, opened for traffic May 14, 1901, was a toll bridge and remained as such until April 30, 1906.

April 13, 18992

"Captain Duncan and his engineer went to Swan Creek, on Thursday, April 7th, to prepare the Florenceville for the season's work. She will probably be running to Woodstock by the last of the week."

April 23, 1892

"The steamer Florenceville reached here on her first trip of the season, at an early hour Tuesday afternoon, April 19th. This steamer has been placed in a thorough state of repair, and looks quite neat."

"The steel bridge across the Falls in Saint John opened for railway traffic in 1885."

I have had a hard search to find the history of the "Bridges" across the St. John River, so I have copied extracts from old "Carleton Sentinels" the Librarian of the Fisher Memorial Library procured for me, for papers wear out and the knowledge is safer in books.

You will also note some things that are not relevant to Upper Woodstock and which belong to the early days, and so I am including them in my history.

Copied from "The Dispatch," Woodstock, N. B., December 19, 1894


Completion of the Highway Connecting
East and West.

The Handsomest Structure of the Kind
in Canada—Almost Half a Mile Long—
Dimensions of the Spans—Where the
Material Was Made.

"The Bridge which was formally opened on Thursday last is without doubt one of the handsomest structures of the kind in Canada. Indeed, it is said, not to be equalled in its class. From the end of King Street it spans the river to a point, slightly higher on the Grafton side. The total length of the planking on the bridge is 2,025 feet. There are twelve spans of which eight are 183 feet long; one 186 feet; one 225 feet; one 100 feet, and one plate girder 50 feet. The height at the centre of the long span is 31 feet; at the centre of none of the spans less than 27 feet. The clear headway of all spans from the flooring up is 17½ feet, high enough to allow the largest load of hay and a man standing on the top to pass under. The estimated weight was 534 tons, while as an actual fact the weight is 537 tons. The cost of the superstructure was $42,487. The iron used in the bridge was prepared at the works of the Canadian Bridge Co., Montreal. This company has done much other work in the Province, notably the next longest iron bridge in the Province at Hampton. They also built a very large bridge at the Chaudiere river, between Hull and Ottawa, taking the place of the old Suspension bridge. This structure is probably the largest single-span bridge in Canda. The width of the roadway for teams is forty feet, besides two sidewalks each five feet wide. The span is 240 feet in length.

"The material for this Woodstock bridge was rolled in Pittsburg, in Montreal, in England, and in Germany. The heavy steel floor beams came from Germany; the iron tension members, rods, etc., came from Montreal and England, and the steel compression members came from Pittsburg. The steel plates came from Scotland.

"This material was all fabricated in Montreal, under the inspection of W. H. Arnold, representative in Montreal of the Ferris Company. This company had previously inspected the material at the rolling mills, which went in the bridge, before shipment from Montreal. The rivets are all of the best iron, and were all driven by hydraulic rivetting machines. All the work at the shops was painted with a coat of oil, except the places which could not be reached after erection, these having a coat of paint. The material was all shipped from Montreal over the C. P. R. and unloaded at the end of the bridge with a derrick erected for the purpose. After the erection was commenced the work was inspected by Mr. John Stulen, another representative of the Ferris Company. The bridge structure should have been finished on the 15th of August in this year, but owing to the rigid inspection of the iron at the works of the Montreal Rolling Mills, this company threw up the contract after finishing all but the larger pieces. These pieces were not to be obtained in Canada, as no mill could guarantee such quality as required in these sizes. They, therefore, had to be obtained in England, and their delivery was further delayed by strikes. This allowed the erection to only be commenced on the 12th day of August, three days previous to the contract day for completion. As the bridge was actually completed on November 18th, it must be seen that the contractors could have had the bridge finished in the specified time if they had not been delayed by circumstances over which they had no control.

"Albert Brewer was the inspector for the flooring and the timber generally. The erection foreman was Mr. Alex. Emery, who has had considerable previous experience in this class of work.

"Of course the great feature, and where the only difficulty in erection occurred, was the erection of the channel span in the winter time, when the current was eight miles an hour, and ice and logs were flowing more or less. The depth of the water, for the most of the way in the span was twenty-two feet. While a good many people thought it impossible to put up the falsework, with such a current, even the provincial engineer being skeptical, this was done without a hitch, with the excception of two bents of the falsework being carried away when the corporation drive came down. After the erection of the bridge was completed two further coats of the most approved bridge paint were put on. The contractors for the superstructure say that the work of the government engineer, A. R. Wetmore, was most thoroughly done, indeed, his supervision exceeding in thoroughness any inspection to which they were subject in previous works. The Canadian Bridge Company, besides, other work in the Province, erected the Woodstock stand-pipe.


Visit Woodstock and Declare the Bridge Open.
An  Interesting  Event  in   the  History  of
the Town—Meeting in the Evening—The
Chief Commissioner and Others Deliver

"The new bridge connecting the eastern and western sides of the river at Woodstock was opened with fitting ceremony on Thursday last. Although Mr. Blair, the Premier of the Province, did not put in an appearance, a number of the local Government celebrities were present. They were: Mr. Emmerson, Chief Commissioner of Public Works; Mr. Mitchell, Provincial Secretary; Mr. Tweedie, Surveyor-General; Mr. White, Solicitor-General, and Mr. Dunn, Minister Without Portfolio.

"Shortly after two o'clock in the afternoon these gentlemen, Mr. J. T. A. Dibblee, M.P.P., the Mayor and members of the Town Council, the president of the Board of Trade and others passed over the bridge in carriages to the Grafton side. When they arrived at their destination quite a number of citizens were gathered round about. The Chief Commissioner opened the ball, by inquiring of the manager of the company, F. E. Came, if the bridge was ready for public use. Mr. Came responded that it was, and Mr. A. R. Wermore, the Government Engineer, gave corroborative evidence, stating that the bridge was duly completed to his satisfaction. Mr. Emmerson then made a speech congratulating the people of the County on the completion of a bridge unsurpassed of its kind in Canada. Cheers were called for and given at the mention of the names of Mr. Emmerson, Mr. J. T. A. Dibblee, Mr. A. R. Wetmore, and Mr. Came.

"Mr. Hanson, Mayor of Woodstock, made a few appropriate remarks and on behalf of the people of Woodstock he thanked the Government for the fine structure they had erected. Mr. J. T. A. Dibblee, M.P.P., Mr. George L. Cronkite, Hon. Wm. Lindsay, Mr. H. Paxton Baird and Mr. J. Bragdon made brief speeches. After the multitude had cheered lustily for Mr. John Stulen, the Government Inspector, the ceremonial came to an end.

"Graham's Opera House was the scene of a public meeting in the evening. The hall was very well filled, and the speakers were accorded a good reception. As issues in Provincial politics are not easy of definition, it is not surprising that the audience displayed no particular enthusiasm one way or the other. They seemed to appreciate the fact that the bridge is done and that it is a handsome structure of which the County and town have reason to be proud.

"On the platform with the Ministers and Mr. Dibblee, were Mr. Samuel Watts, chairman; John Harper, C. L. Tilley, Robert Brown, Stephen Peabody, G. L. Cronkite, Mayor Hanson, John Sutton, Wm. Taylor, S. B. Appleby, P. Corbett, S. Speer, J. Flemming, Dr. Ross, C. P. Bull and F. E. Came. After the chairman had opened the meeting and had made a fit reference to the loss the country had sustained in the death of the Premier, he introduced Mr. Dibblee, who remarked that he had been the sole representative of the County for some months during which time he had done his best to look after the interests of the County. Whether he had succeeded or not, was for the people to say. They would notice that he was falling away and that the hair on his head was getting thin (laughter). He was going to ask the Government to relieve him from part of his responsibility as soon as possible. The people would soon be called upon to elect a representative to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. H. A. Connell. Whoever they elected, he hoped he would work with him and with the Governent.

"Mr. Emmerson made quitre a lengthy speech, defending the action of the Government in respect to the bridge. He claimed that it was almost impossible to bring any work to a finish without some extras being found necessary. The tenders for the substructure of the bridge varied from $60,000 to $107,000. The average offer was $90,000 and this average offer was made by practical men. It would be found that, all extras and rebuilding of piers included, the cost of the substructure did not exceed the average tender. With regard to the superstructure delays had occurred which were regrettable, but unavoidable. The Government could rightly claim credit for the thorough system of inspection they had carried out with respect to the substructure. Every piece of iron which went into the work was inspected before it left the machine shop. The estimated weight of the superstructure was 534 tons, and the contract weight was 537 tons, so that the bridge was just three tons stronger than required in the contract. He gave credit to the engineer in charge, Mr. A. R. Wetmore, for the thoroughness with which he did the work, and to Mr. John Stulen, the government inspector, for the capable way in which he had performed his duties.

"Mr. White also spoke at considerable length. In bringing his address to a close he referred to the registrar of wills and deeds. He had held an investigation into a charge made against that gentleman, and the conclusion he had reached was such as he was sure any candid man would reach who read over the shorthand report. And anyone was welcome to read it over if they wished to do so.

"Mr. Mitchell said he was one of those who at first opposed the location of the bridge. However, he had consulted with many practical engineers afterwards and they had said to him that whatever complaints the people might have to make with regard to the bridge they had no reason to complain that it was not properly located.



Chapter IV.


There was a great scourge of diphtheria in the year 1875 and so very many of the people died. In our family we lost three in one month — Robert Alexander Henderson died January 5, 1875, Annie Elizabeth Henderson died January 14, 1875, and David William Henderson died February 7, 1875. I was very ill with it, but I was spared. I must here recount the heroic efforts of Francis P. Sharp in my behalf. Ther were few doctors in those days and a trained nurse was unheard of. When sickness came into a family, the neighbors felt it their duty to come and sit up all night and let the mother have a bit of needed rest. There were neighbors in those days. Well, my mother was almost dead with grief and weariness, and Mr. F. P. Sharp came and sat up with me night after night. They way they treated diphtheria at that time (I shall never forget) was to have a small stick the size of a small lead pencil and tie a piece of absorbent cotton on one end and dip it in some medicine (I forget what), and swab your throat to break off the large white patches that would almost choke you. Well, everybody was scared at this time, after the other children had died, but Mr. Sharp came just the same and it was dangerous. He said: "If you are doing your duty, God will take care of you," and that speech of his, heard in my early childhood, has never left me. It has remained with me in many perplexing situations in my life. He did not pretend to be a Christian, yet he had Christianity. He was a very clever man, far ahead of his time. He was a genius. Little things that bothered other people, such as good housekeeping, mattered not to him. He was deep in thought and often after Mrs. Sharp had cleaned and arranged the house, he would bring in armsful of trees, saplings, etc., to graft them, and oh my! what disorder.

I have resented for a number of years, the lack of appreciation of his efforts to do something in the world, and only this last April I found in the Fredericton "Gleaner" the following tribute:—

Copy — "Consideration will be given to the establishment by the New Brunswick Fruit Growers' Association of a Memorial to Francis P. Sharp, an orchardist of Carleton County, who died in 1903, and who is credited with originating the New Brunswick Apple. The Association at its concluding session of the 34th Annual meeting adopted a resolution to this effect on motion of Vice-President Earl Hawkins of Douglas. The preamble sets out that the late Mr. Sharp contributed greatly to the cause of horticulture in New Brunswick; originated the New Brunswick apple and was recognized for his extensive knowledge of horticulture. He resided near Woodstock and had his nurseries there."

The record below of Mr. Sharp's achievements appeared in the Fredericton "Gleaner," April 14, 1939:—


Remarkable  Orchardist  and  Nurseryman
of Upper Woodstock Died in 1903—Mem-
ory  Is  To   Be  Formally  Honored — New
Brunswicker,  Crimson  Beauty,  Duchess,
and  Other  Apples  Developed  By  Him.   

"The action of the New Brunswick Fruit Growers' Association yesterday afternoon in adopting a resolution favoring the establishemnt of a suitable memorial for the late Francis Peabody Sharp directs attention to a career which has practically fallen from the public mind. It was a career, nevertheless, which places Sharp in the list of most brilliant men produced by New Brunswick.

"While his contributions to horticulture were evidently widely recognized and appreciated during his life, there is practically no record of a permanent sort, which appears to be the reverse of the circumstances not infrequently attached to persons who have made meritorious contributions to science and art. The information at hand comes from a paper prepared by Earl Hawkins, of Douglas, vice-president of the Fruit Growers' Association, whose source of information is an annual report of the Provincial Department of Agriculture of about the year 1906.

"Francis Peabody Sharp, born in Northampton Parish, Carleton County, N. B., in September, 1823, was the pioneer orchardist of this Province. He grew the first barrel of native New Brunswick apples ever sold in a commercial market. What is far more important, Sharp not only originated new varieties of apples better suited to New Brunswick conditions but evolved methods of culture altogether new to horticulture which have been or are being adopted by older orchard countries.

"Possessing a great mind and an analytical disposition, Sharp had the faculty of seeing relationships between facts apparently uncorrelated. Unwilling to accept any scientific statement or explanation as final, with microscope he set to work to study soil composition, structures of root, stem and leaf, and the character of the vital sap of plants and its circulatory system.


"He was many years ahead of his time, which may account in part for the modest attention paid him by the public life and scientific world of his day. While his extensive orchards provided him in his later years with a handsome income, much of the revenue went into further experimentation. He never received any assistance from either Provincial or Federal Governments. While Sharp did travel and attend conventions of horticulturists and pomologists as far west in the United States as Ohio, his work was strictly local and fully appreciated only by those who had visited his magnificent orchards in Carleton County.

"Soon after becoming of age in 1844, Sharp purchased his father's farm at Northampton with its existing orchards and again later opened a nursery at Upper Woodstock, to which place his father had removed following the sale of the farm. The farm at Northampton soon became the location of a nursery of plums and apples.

"He experimented with every variety of apple readily available but ever in his mind was the consciousness of the possibilities in developing a new strain of this fruit. Fameuse and Alexander were introduced into general use by Sharp and other well-known old varieties grown by him were: Red Astrachan, Porter, Minister, Golden Russet, Ribston Pippin, St. Lawrence, Gravenstein, Talman Sweet and Williams Favorite.


"Growing apples from seed was, of course, an important part of the nursery work. In a lot of seeds obtained from Bangor, one shoot with a distinctive appearance was observed and allowed to grow on a second year. When the first fruit came, ten or a dozen large, handsome apples, Sharp said (as related in a written record by one Darius A. Shaw, who was an employee of Sharp at that time in general charge of the Upper Woodstock nursery), 'I saw at once their value and began propagating at once. It was the first apple of quality that gave evidence of being completly adapted to New Brunswick.'

"This was the original New Brunswicker which was different, Sharp pointed out, from the Duchess of Oldenburg, a variety of Russian origin.


"Sharp later began the time-consuming practice of systematically hybridising varieties of apples to produce new varieties. With his New Brunswicker usually as one of the parent varieties, Sharp made some 2,000 cross-breedings, from which originated Munro Sweet No. 2, now called Walden, which approximates the quality of a McIntosh Red but is midway between it and the Fameuse, and Crimson Beauty. The Munro Sweet and Crimson Beauty materialized about the year 1866.


"Sharp in an address in Fredericton before the Farmers' and Dairymen's Association in 1896 made the statement that he and Peter M. Gideon, a famous contemporary horticulturist of the United States, were the first two men in America to systematically hybridize the apple and pear.

"Sharp's work in connection with pears and plums is a record of remarkable achievement. A seed of some plums obtained by T. A. Mooers, of Ashland, produced a new variety of great hardiness which Sharp named 'Mooers Arctic.' By evolving a system of bending plum trees over flat on the ground for the winter period, Sharp succeeded in inducing a far heavier yield under what is known as the 'Law of Antagonism of Stalk and Fruit.' The bending caused an interference with the flow of the cambium inducing excessive fruit-bud making.


"It is recorded that Sharp put nursery plum trees three feet high into heavy bearing and accomplished the feat of producing an apple from seed 16 months after planting. He turned leaf buds into fruit buds and also reversed the process by cross-fertilizing. These discoveries affected orchard practice and production in many parts of the world, in England, for instance, where fruit trees tended to make excessive wood growth, full bearing at an early age of the tree was brought about.

"Sharp's life of activity came to an end at Upper Woodstock in December, 1903, after eighty years on this earth."


There was an Act to separate the Parish from the Town of Woodstock presented to Parliament on March 31, 1880. Both F. P. Sharp and my father worked very hard to get this petition up and signed. The majority of the people of Woodstock were against this Act.

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1880, March 31, Page 61.

"Mr. White, by leave, presented a Petition from the County Council of the Municipality of Carleton, and of G. R. Ketchum and sixteen others, residents of the Parish of Woodstock, praying that a Bill intituled an Act to divide the Parish from the Town of Woodstock, may pass and become law.

"Ordered:   That the said Petition be received and lie on the Table."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1881, Page 111.

"Mr. Leighton, by leave, presented a Petition from the Town Council of the Town of Woodstock, praying that the Bill intituled an Act to divide the Parish from the Town of Woodstock, do not pass.

"Ordered:   That the said Petition be received and lie on the Table.

"On motion of Mr. Leighton, seconded by Mr. Cottwell, Resolved, That the said Petition be read by the Clerk at the Table, which was done accordingly."

During the years 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, this Petition was before the House, until it was finally passed in 1886.

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1885, March 12, Page 55.

"Mr. White, by leave, presented a Petition from Leonard G. Slipp, Abner Bull, John D. Ketchum, and one hundred and eighty-four others, free-holders and ratepayers of the Parish of Woodstock, in the County of Carleton, praying that a Bill intituled an Act to divide the Parish from the Town of Woodstock, may pass and become law.

"Ordered:   That the said Petition be received and lie on the Table.

"Read a second time."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1885, March 18, Page 80.

"Mr. Leighton, by leave, presented a Petition from H. A. Connell, Mayor, L. P. Fisher, Livingstone Dibblee, Gilbert W. VanWart, Wesley Hayward and one hundred forty-five others, ratepayers of the Town and Parish of Woodstock, praying that a Bill intituled an Act to separate the Parish from the Town of Woodstock, may not pass and become law.

"Ordered:   That the said Petition be received and lie on the Table."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1885, March 10, Page 48.

"Mr. White moved for leave to bring in a Bill intituled an Act to divide the Parish from the Town of Woodstock.

"Leave granted.

"The said Bill being brought in was read a first time.

"Second reading of Bill, March 12th, 1885."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1885, March 14, Page 66.

"Pursuant of Notice:—

"On motion of Mr. White, seconded by Mr. Hibbard, Resolved, That a committee be appointed composed of five members, to whom shall be referred a Bill intituled an Act to divide the Parish from the Town of Woodstock.

"Ordered:   That Mr. Thompson, Mr. Killam, Mr. Morton, Mr. Hetherington and Mr. Hibbard, do compose the said committee."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1886, Page 92.

(Report of the committee).

"Your committee have considered the following Bills, and beg leave to report favorably on the same: 'Bill 40, an Act to divide the Town from the Parish of Woodstock.'

"Ordered:   That the Report be accepted and the committee continued."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1886, Page 129.

"On motion of Mr. Leighton, the House went into committee of the whole on 'A Bill intituled an Act to divide the Town from the Parish of Woodstock.'

"Mr. Wetmore in the chair of the committee.

"Mr. Speaker resumed the chair.

"The Chairman reported, that the committee having the Bill referred to them under their consideration, had made amendments thereto, and then agreed to the same.

"Ordered:   That the Report be accepted, the Bill engrossed as amended, and read a third time tomorrow."

"On March 27th the Bill was recommitted, amended and to be engrossed."

From the "Minutes of the Assembly Journal," 1886, March 29, Page 149.

"Read a third time as engrossed, pursuant to the Order of Saturday, a Bill intituled an Act to divide the Town from the Parish of Woodstock.

"Resolved, That the said Bill do now pass."

The Bill was passed on April 2nd, 1886, Sir S. L. Tilley, C.B., K.C.M.G., was the Lieutenant-Governor.

The people of the Parish thought that they were paying an undue part of the taxes, and that the people of the Town should pay more, and they therefore worked for this division of the Town from the Parish until 1886.

After my father worked so hard with F. P. Sharp to have this Bill passed the joke was on my father, as Mr. Sharp said; because it had taken so long to get the Town separated from the Parish due to the strong opposition, my father in the meantime had moved the family into Woodstock.



Chapter V.


"My father came from Saint John to Woodstock after the Woodstock fire on April 16, 1860, and started in the milling business there with a Mr. Davis, at the mouth of the Meduxnakeag Creek. This mill was burned down and my father lost everything he had — which was not very much. In 1863 he moved to Upper Woodstock and lived in the Chipman Hazen House at the confluence of the Jacksonville road with the Main River road that ran straight through the village from south to north. I was born in this house on October 15, 1866.

October 31, 1866, dad bought a lot of land on the Jacksonville road from Beverly Estey and built a small shop and a house there. The ell of the house was finished first and we lived in that, and as the years went by we had the whole house finished little by little and a very comfortable home it was. My father was an expert turner by trade, but he was also a cabinetmaker.

He carried on a paying business in this little shop for some years. George Clynick worked with him then. In 1873 he bought the old Stevenson place, so called, deeded to him September 3, 1873, by Edward Allison, Edward E. Lockhart, and James Christie, and started a steam furniture factory. In a few years he had from twenty-five to thirty men working for him and earning good wages.

I can see the old factory in memory now. As you entered the door on the right was a large surface-planing machine opposite a window through which the long lumber was pushed; next a pony planer for small lumber; and next a cutting-off saw, a ripping saw, and a large band-saw, a tenanting(sic) [tenoning?] machine, a variety moulder — which was a dangerous machine and only skilled workmen ran this machine — a turning lathe, a buffer, sand-papering machine, etc. This machine shop covered the whole first floor. Behind this was the furnace room with furnace and boiler and a twenty horsepower engine with heavy driving belt that ran in through the stone wall into the main cellar under the factory, where all the shafting and pulleys, belts, etc., were for driving the machines.

The second storey was used as a work shop, and part of it was a wareroom until May 1, 1880, when dad got a lease of a lot from Samuel Watson and built a two-and-a-half storey building for warerooms, and my office was in one of the front windows of this wareroom's first flat. We kept mattresses, spring beds, bedsteads, chairs, rocking chairs, kitchen and extension tables, etc., on the first floor. Second floor was used for bedroom suites, parlor suites, easy chairs, fancy rockers, desks, hat trees, pictures, pulpits, pulpit chairs, and communion tables. On the third floor were school desks and seats, common bulky furniture and odds and ends.

The stairways were built wide and in the corner at a right angle, with a platform halfway up, and this made it easy to carry furniture up and down. There were no elevators in those days.

June 27, 1881 we bought a piece of land from Daniel Jackson to build an ell on this wareroom for a paint shop and upholstering shop. The first shop that dad built on the Jacksonville road in 1866 was moved down years before this for a place in which to store dry lumber and choice lumber and it was moved further back and the paint shop built in between, which consisted of two floors. The upper floor was used for the paint shop and the lower one for storing lumber, and the small shop was used for an upholstering shop.

It was about this time that the lovely old home of Francis P. Sharp, which had been built by Mr. Norris Best, manager of the Iron Works, was burned down and he built another large house which was never completely finished, and he put on a gravel roof. My father, who was a great friend of Mr. Sharp's, had to put on a gravel roof on the new paint shop too. Well, well, we all learn by experience and sometimes it is costly. I used to stay all night with Minnie Sharp very often, and as often as it rained we would have to move our bed around the rooom to get clear of the rain-drops that sifted through the gravel roof. My father would have to get up in the night when a storm began and go down to the paint shop and shift the furniture around to keep it from gettting wet. After a few years of this inconvenience dad put a slanted wooden roof on and that trouble was over.

For years we burned cord wood and the refuse from the planing machines, etc., but then we put in finer grates in the furnace and burned sawdust that was hauled from Hayden's Mill at Woodstock. We had a sloven wagon with a built-up body and one horse and for years Stephen Thibedeau was the driver, then Fred McCluskey drove for years. They hauled four loads a day — two in the morning and two in the afternoon. It was a ten-hour day then, from seven o'clock in the morning until six o'clock at night, with the noon-hour from twelve to one.

I went into the Factory in a little office 8x10 in November, 1879, to post books after school, but I left school May 1, 1880, and took up the work in earnest. Dad was building the warerooms that I have spoken about that year and needed my help.

We did not have an engineer to run the engine but used to get someone who was mechanical. In the winter-time we had John Johnson, the Swedish engineer who ran the steamer "Florenceville" from Fredericton to Woodstock every summer for many years, look things over for us and give instructions to the foreman or my father and they in turn taught the men or boys. One of these boys was J. Chip Hartley (1877 or 1878) before he went to Acadia University, then he studied law about the year 1880 or 1881, I think. My father was always interested in Chip, as he called him, even to the day of his death. Chip wrote dad's will for him, although Chip was a deep-dyed Conservative and dad a life-long Liberal. That is saying a good deal for friendship in Carleton County, where politics is almost a religion. Another one of the boys who acted as engineers was Burnham Ganong, another was Joe Broderick, and another Robert Faulkins.

In 1876 William R. Wright was the foreman and Robert C. Fitzsimmons was the handy man. He was a good worker and an excellent painter and at that time it was fahionable to have pine chamber suites painted in light colours, with bunches of grapes or bunches of flowers on the head boards and smaller copies of the same thing on the foot boards, and fronts of bureaus, and commodes, and Fitzsimmons was expert in painting these flowers. Mr. Peacock also was an extra painter. J. W. Astle was one of the best turners that this countgry ever produced. I have in my possession a goblet made of small pieces of walnut and white wood glued together and then turned with two rings turned on the stem of the goblet. My father took this to the World's Fair in Chicago and entered it, and it took first prize in turning. I want to show you what was once done at Upper Woodstock and could be done again.

G. N. A. Burnham was an excellent wood-worker and he worked on walnut parlor suites and pulpit furniture. At that time A. Henderson made nearly all the pulpit suites and communion tables used in Upper New Brunswick.

From 1876 to 1882 Ned McMullin from Saint John was our upholsterer. He was a good workman but not as good as Smith who followed him. McMullin married Ada Sisson. Walter J. Smith was from Jersey City, New Jersey, and the best upholsterer that could be procured. His work would meet the best in any market. He was with us a great many years from 1882 on. David Hipwell was a first-class woodworker, and years after this when W. R. Wright bought out the David J. Holder Grocery Shop, Hipwell was our foreman. All these men were expert mechanics and as good workmen as any country or city could produce.


People sent their boys to learn trades in those days and they worked for five years before they were journeymen and could demand the best of wages. Now all we have are handy-men who pick up what they can from watching and working with others and thus learn what they do know at your expense. I am sure this is not an improved condition, and our country need not be as destitute of employment as it is if the young men would learn trades and do their part in building up business.

Theodore Henderson, my adopted brother, was a very good painter too. We had at this time Alex. Young, James Young, John McGoverin, Joe Broderick, Robert Faulkins from Richmond, Garret Cox, James E. Dysart, William Dysart, Burnham Ganong, Harry Dysart, John Riley, Wm. McPherson, Gabriel Brewer, Joshua Crawford, Arthur Murphy, George Laird, Albert E. Nase, and many more men whose names I cannot remember.


We always had, beside these master mechanics, men to work in the yard handling lumber and piling it. We bought the logs from the farmers and they were hauled to Hayden's Mill to be sawn up alive and we cut the lumber to dimensions ourselves and had the roughage for firewood. We saved a great deal by this method as we could use every little bit of lumber and prevent waste. There was not much money in circulation at this time but farmers paid for their furniture in cordwood, lumber, pork, beef, oats, hay and vegetables, potatoes and eggs, chickens, turkeys, etc., and we paid our men a certain amount of money each month and gave them the goods we bought from the farmers, and also they bought their furniture and paid so much a month, so we had lots of bookeeeping to do to keep all accounts straight.

I am cop;ying a Pay Sheet from the old books in 1889, April 13th:—

  W. R. Wright
R. C. Fitzsimmons
G. N. A. Burnham
Alex. Young
Harry Dysart
John Riley
Wm. McPherson
James Young
Gabriel Brewer
Joshua Crawford
David Hipwell
Garrett Cox
M. M. Henderson
Arthur Murphy
George Laird
Albert E. Nase
Aubrey L. White

You will notice that some received very little money. That means that their wages had been taken up before paydfay, so there was nothing coming to them.

I might have had all the information needed to give a detailed idea of the times and the people, but never thinking that I was covering up information that I would need some day, I used the old books for scrap books, and for forty years have been making scrap books — pasting over accounts and names that I now would love to have, but I did not think of writing this history then. I have one old Day Book from 1843 to 1846 showing that pounds, shillings and pence were then in use.

I remember so vividly the morning that Burnham Ganong was killed. I described the way the large driving belt from the engine went through the deep stone wall into the cellar to the main shaft. Burnham told some one he could climb through this space on the stones while the engine was running. Dad heard of this and told him he must not do such a thing. Well, he did. The foreman, W. R. Wright, heard a thumping noise downstairs and shut off the engine to find out the cause and there, hanging on the shaft, was the lifeless body of poor Burnham. His mother was a widow and Burnham had one little sister, but I do not remember if there were any others in the family. His mother blamed us, but she should not have done so, for it surely was his own fault. We felt very deeply about it.

The same year poor old Andrew Nichol was killed on the rail track between Woodstock and Upper Woodstock and his remains brought into our factory in pieces. This was a terrible tragedy. Will Dysart lost his arm in the planing machine a short time after this. He had on a cotton shirt, and rolled up the sleeves to get cooled off, and the sleeve unrolled and caught in the fast-moving lumber and drew in his arm before they could turn off the planer and it tore his arm and mangled it so badly that it had to be taken off at the shoulder.

Copied from The Historical Publishing Co. of Canada, Toronto, 1889:—

"A. HENDERSON, Manufacturer of and Dealer in Furniture of all kinds, Queen Street. There is no country which has naturally a greater and more diversified supply of wood than has the Dominion, and thus it is not to be wondered at, that Canadian skill and inventive genius have found a fruitful field of enterprise in the manufacture of furniture. We have in Woodstock an old-established house, the productions of which, since its inception, have always held a standard reputation on the market. For twenty-five years has Mr. A. Henderson been engaged in the manufacture and sale of furniture, and in that time he has built up a widely extended trade and connection. His factory, located at Upper Woodstock, is fitted up with the best and most improved of modern machinery, operated by a twenty horsepower engine, while employment is given to some twenty-five hands. The products of the factory consist of all kinds of general furniture, parlor and bedroom suites, cabinet work to order, dining-room, hall and library furniture, in modern and antique styles, while a specialty is made of church, school and office furniture; only the best of materials are used, and everything is finished in the best possible manner. The warerooms are on Queen street, and comprise two flats, each 30x60 feet in dimensions, where those desiring either large or small quantities of furniture may get their wants promptly and satisfactorily supplied. Carpets, mats, sweepers, cornice poles, window blinds, rocking chairs, mattresses of all kinds, spring beds, etc., are all dealt in. Mr. Henderson is a native of Halifax, N. S., and by the exercise of enterprise and energy, his establishment has attained a prominence in the trade which is accorded only to those whose operations are characterized by the sound principles of mercantile probity."

At that date money was scarcer than it is today, but it bought more. Eggs sold for 8 to 10 cents per dozen and when they climbed to 12 cents — a cent an egg — we thought they were too high in price to use many. Chickens sold for 25 cents, and one day I paid 42 cents for a large chicken and my mother thought it was an awful price and wanted me to return it, but I said I would not. I had bought it and that was that. That little episode fixed itself in my memory somehow. Beef was 5 cents a pound and we mostly bought a quarter at a time in the winter and hung it up in the shed and when a roast was needed, we would take a saw and saw off a roast. Everyone at that time knew how to cut meat properly.

Potatoes were 40 to 50 cents a barrel. There was not such a thing as fertilizer as it is known today used or bought at that time. Barn manure was used and the farmers followed the common plan of rotation of crops and thus kept their farms in good condition. Today they have given up mixed farming — and gone into potato raising. This is not a good thing for the country. In the old days if potatoes were a failure, they had turnips, or buckwheat, beets, peas, beans, etc.

There was not as much wheat grown then as now, but still I never remember the time we could not buy home-grown wheat flour. There was a mill at Bristol, one at Hartford, four miles from Woodstock run by a Mr. Stickney, the Hugh Davis mill at the mouth of the Meduxnakeag Creek in Woodstock, and others. This flour made good wholesome bread, so sweet to taste but dark in colour.

The farmers' wives looked after the hen-house and hens and sold the eggs and made the butter and had that money and were thrifty women. A farmer's success is largely dependent upon his wife. It is too bad that so many leave a comfortable farm and move to the city to live a hand-to-mouth existence, rather than do the necessary drudgery of farm work. When they live in town a while they find that every vocation in life has its necessary drudgery, which must be performed before results are obtained.

In the summer of 1884 dad started a warehouse in Woodstock. He rented the one-half of the Leverett Fletcher Jewellery store and we had just a few samples of parlor chairs and tables, hat-trees, bedsteads, etc., as there was not much room. We marked everything in plain figures and Mr. Fletcher would sell and take orders if dad or I was not there. During that winter of 1884 I walked down to the warehouse every morning and back every night, carrying my dinner with me. I remember how deep the snow was as so many times it would be up to my knees, and the temperature very low. I had my cheeks frozen many times and my toes also.

Dad began building the new warerooms on Queen Street, Woodstock, that year and finished the builing and May 1st rented half of the first flat to J. Rice Tupper and sold out to him our Undertaking business. We had always been in the Undertaking business as long as I could remember, but it was not carried on as it is today. We never advertised this part of the business. My father always said, "If you bury anyone in a family, they will be sure to come for you to bury the next member of the family who dies, just the same as you always send for the same doctor when you get sick." We never kept coffins on hand, but they were made up after the person passed away. The measure was taken and the coffins made to fit. They were made wide at the head and the lumber was sawed across half a dozen times so that it could be bent at the elbow, and the foot was always narrow. The coffins for old people were covered with black cloth, for middle-aged people they were covered with gray cloth, and for children and young people with white.

The caskets, as we know them now, had not come into use. Next fashion after the coffins I have mentioned, was the plain wood casket, with two silver handles on each side. Now they use three handles on each side. J. R. Tupper ran the Undertaking business for a number of years. Then he sold it back to us. He owned the hearse and ran a livery stable along with the Undertaking business.

After we bought the Undertaking business back, we took down the partition in the Queen Street store and bought another building and land running back to Harvey Street, and used the old building fronting on Harvey Stret for the Undertaking business. We built in between for packing rooms, and storage room, and then our business ran from Queen Street to Harvey Street with three storeys.

The first and second flats were warerooms and the third was used as a paint shop and repair shop. We had our factory running full-time at Upper Woodstock, until the year 1894, when father sold it to Chestnut & Hipwell. We had the same number of men working and the same men as in the list I have given you in 1889 up to that date (1894).

Guy Donohoe clerked for us in the warerooms in 1892 and 1893.

My father was very ill all the winter of 1894 with the "grippe" as it was called then. It was a serious epidemic, and many died of it. My father had never been sick before this in his lifetime. I mean seriously ill, and he thought this time he was surely going to die. It took him all the next summer to regain his strength, and that is why he made up his mind to sell out the factory, which he did. Well, it ran only two years, when it was burned down in 1896, and that was a great loss to Upper Woodstock.

A few years after this my father started a factory in Woodstock. I cannot remember if he bought the old Donohoe Carriage Factory or if that had been burned down and he built another on the same site, and I would not know whom to ask now, since Donald Munro is gone. He could have told me.

In this factory he had working for him in 1901:—


All these names appear on the pay lists.

Beside these men in the Factory at Woodstock, we had the following men in the Warerooms from 1885 on through the years:—

HARRY NOBLE, who was afterwards in the grocery business of Noble & Trafton in Woodstock for many years; then as a traveller for Barbour Co., and later in the insurance business.

LEBARON DIBBLEE, who worked for us for years. He married Miss Smith of Woodstock, and later went to Ontario and died there a few years ago.

SHERRY MURPHY, from Andover, a grandson of Adam Beveridge. He later went west to Kenora, and is in business there now.

AUBREY L. WHITE, who went to Spokane, Washington, and made good there.

CHARLES LEWIS from Perth. He went back to Perth and married and had a family, and ran a mill business there for years. He died just last year — 1939.

HARRIS BAIRD, who went to Winnipeg in September, 1902, and BERT KELLY took his place.

MARGARET BAIRD, went to Winnipeg in June, 1903, and MINNIE McINTOSH took her place.

MR. CURRY, from Richmond, who was afterwards a dentist.

JACK McFARLANE was with us for years.

STERLING KING, who is still living in Woodstock.

ABRAM BREWER must have been with us twenty years. He worked with dad at the Undertaking business and also did the repair work.

And in the Paint Shop there were:—


The following names were on the Pay Sheet on August 4, 1906:—


The A. Henderson Furniture Co. was formed on April 16, 1901, and it was sold out to Amos Day from Boston in August, 1906, who sold it to Henry DeWitt in 1910.

After my father sold out to Mr. Day he gave up the factory and built it over into Apartments and continued in this business of buying houses and renting them until his death November 2, 1908.

Copyh from the "Busy East" of August, 1922:—

"A furniture store of the better sort, one with an old and honorable name is that of A. Henderson Furniture Company, Limited, whose place of business is on Queen Street. Founded many years ago by the late A. Henderson, this business has become firmly imbedded in public confidence and regard. Though it changed hands twelve years ago, when the present owner, Mr. Henry DeWitt took charge, there has been no break in the continuity, the mantle of the late Mr. Henderson having descended upon his successor.

"The business home of A. Henderson Furniture Co., Limited, is a three-storey block, with a frontage of 23 feet and a depth of 150 feet, the building extending from Queen to Harvey Street. The first floor is devoted to show rooms and offices; the second floor to show rooms, while the third floor is given up to a big work-room, where several men are employed in repairing furniture and at work incidental to undertaking, for undertaking and embalming constitute an important branch of the business of this company. Where there is life there is death and where there is death a Chrisitan burial, conducted decently and in order, is to be desired. In time of grief and sadness it is certainly a comfort to be able to place the funeral arrangements in the hands of a firm like Messrs. Henderson, Limited, with the assurance that every detail will be given decorous, careful and fitting attention."



Chapter VI.


Taking the map of Hardscrabble in the year 1876 and following house by house from the outskirts of the village coming up from Woodstock north, I am going to tell you what I remember about the people.

The first house on the right side, the "Half-Way House" as we always called it, was occupied by one "John Nelson," a darkie. Next, and very near, was a house occupied by a Hugh MacDonald. Both these houses were burned down years ago. Next above his house was a long row of willow trees, and it was always wet under the willows, but it was so refreshing to walk under them on a hot July or August day coming home from Church or Sabbath School in Woodstock. Years after this the willows were cut down in the interest of better roads, and a Mr. Fred Nevers built a house opposite "The Willows" and now a Mr. Joe Gans occupies it.

On the same side as "The Willows" a Twosaw [Tuessant?] Trombley built a small house and he and his sons lived there for years. They were known as Twosaws and few people ever knew their surname was Trombley. Almost opposite there was a large house owned by a Mr. and Mrs. James Jordan and their daughter Clara. Mrs. Jordan was a Miss Daniel from Saint John, a very cultured woman and quite an artist. I took drawing lessons from her. In after years Clara married Garritt Cox, who worked for us in the factory. Franklin Sharp bought this place and lived there a number of years and cultivated an orchard there. He died young — I think in the year 1892 — and Lizzie, his sister, ran the orchard for a number of years. Mr. Francis P. Sharp died in this house. It is now occupied by a Mr. Harris.

Next above, and far back in the field, was the Harrison home. When I knew them Mrs. Harrison was a widow with four children. Thomas was the eldest, then Maggie, Launie, and Herbert. Thomas was the farmer, Maggie married Sam Smith, Launie went West I think, and Herb. worked with us for years, then went West. The farm was sold to Cyrus VanWart and he and his wife lived there for years. Mr. VanWart died a few years ago and his wife lives there still in half the house and a family by the name of Neilson lives in the other half.

About an eighth of a mile farther on, same side of the road, was the George Clynick house. He was a carpenter and worked often for my father in the factory. He was killed by a horse in front of the factory. This house was occupied by Mr. Alex. Young and family from Scotland from 1889 to 1894. After Alex. Young left, the property was purchased by a Mr. Whalen, who still owns it, but he is on the police force in Fredericton and rents the house to a Mr. Riordon and family.

Next above was the Westall house. Mr. and Mrs. Westall and family — Lizzie, Alma and Percy — lived here. Lizzie married a William Miller in Jacksontown, and Alma and Percy moved away and I hear they are both dead now. This house is now owned by a Mrs. Bragdon, widow of the Rev. Hedley Bragdon, a Reformed Baptist Minister, who died a few years ago.

Across from the Whalen house was the tailor shop of John E. Smith. He was an expert workman and earned a good living for a large family. They had a fine home next door. After Mr. Smith died the tailor shop was made over into a house and William Hamilton lived in it for some time. This house was later burned down and another house built on the same site which was owned by a Mr. Wilmot Burtt from Jacksontown.

John E. Smith was born September 3, 1818, and was married June 23, 1848, to Margaret A. Dergen, who was born September 1, 1828. They had eleven children:—
  Alice Maud Mary, born April 5, 1849.
Charlotte, born February 25, 1851.
Thomas Edward, born February 23, 1853.
John Wesley, born February 16, 1855.
Ada Luella, born March 4, 1857.
Catherine, born in July, died in August, 1859.
Sheloa Ann, born July 28, 1860, lives now in Braintree, Massachusetts.
Lizzie Minnie, born January 3, 1863.
Alfred Ernest, born June 14, 1865.
Cora, born January 1, 1868, died in 1871.
James William, born March 17, 1870, died in 1935.

Mrs. Smith died November 7, 1887, and Mr. Smith died May 12, 1902.

CHARLOTTE married William Kearney, Wakefield, and is still living. They had one son, Hastings Kearney, born October 16, 1887, and one daughter, Bessie, born February 25, 1885, who now lives in Vancouver. William Kearney is dead, but Hastings is living in Wakefield.

THOMAS was a tailor like his father, and he left Upper Woodstock and went to the States and is dead now.

ADA married in the States.

SHELOA worked in her father's tailor shop until his death in 1902, then she worked in a tailor shop in Woodstock, then went to the States and is now living in Braintree, Mass.

LIZZIE married Robert C. FitzSimmons, who worked for my father for years. He came from St. Andrews when quite a youjng boy to learn his trade and he was an excellent mechanic. He lived with us until he married. They had two children — Allie and Cecil Robert. Robert died June 6, 1870.

ALLIE married Andrew Dunbar, Jr., of Woodstock, and they moved to Vancouver, and Mrs. FitzSimmons went with them.

CECIL is the express agent at Woodstock and own the Smith homestead and rents it — a Mr. Clowes is the present incumbent. Cecil married and they had one daughter, HELEN. Helen FitzSimmons graduated from the University of New Brunswick with honors, and is now working in the employ of the New Brunswick Government. At the date of writing, December, 1939, I have just learned that CECIL FitzSimmons has joined the Army and is leaving for England.

WILLIE, the youngest, went to St. Stephen when quite young and became the owner or manager of the Queen Hotel there, and also owned the picture house there when he died in 1935. He was married and they had one daughter, HAZEL, who married Todd Thomas, Calais, Maine, and they have three children.


Right behind the Smith house is the Presbyterian Graveyard and I am going to give you quite an account of it when I come to the date it was improved, 1919.

Following the road past the Graveyard right down to the river bank you found the Mill owned by Steve Jones, who ran this mill for years. He built a very good house there close beside his mill, and they lived there. The house and mill are both burned now.

Back again to the main road. On the other side of the road was the Robert Smith house. Robert Smith was one of the most beautiful singers that Woodstock ever produced. For years he was the leader of the Methodist choir in Woodstock and never before or since has a Woodstock Chruch had music to compare with what they listened to every Sabbath when he was the leader. He gave freely of his time and talent, and here I wish to register my appreciation of his efforts towards the cultural life of the community. He married Colonel J. R. Tupper's daughrer, but I cannot find out any more of their story. They left Upper Woodstock and the house was bought by James Watson, son of Bailiff Watson. James Watson married a Miss McNinch from St. Stephen. They lived there for years, and had no family.1 The house is now owned and occupied by George London.

James Watson rented this house to James E. Dysart and family for years. Their family consists of James, John, Willie, Harry, Eva and Juliette.

JAMES E. DYSART, Jr., was a sewing machine agent when I knew him. He married a Miss Cox and is now living in Skowhegan, Maine, and they have a family.

JOHN DYSART worked in Connell's Foundry in Woodstock.

WILLIE worked for us and lost his arm in the planing machine in the factory. He is now dead.

HARRY is married and lives in Skowhegan, Maine, He was in the Boer War.

EVA married Edward Cox, Millville. They had two daughters, Margaret and Pauline. They lived in Hartland when I knew them. Mrs. Cox died in Millville.

JULIETTE married Alonzo B. Kitchen, in Fredericton. They had two children — Walter, and a girl who died in infancy.

          WALTER married Vera VanBuskirk, and they had one daughter who lives with her grandmotehr, Mrs. A. B. Kitchen. Alonzo B. Kitched died a few years ago. Walter was in the Flying Corps in the World War.

Next to this house up on a knoll was the Presbyterian Church, built in 1838. This church was not burned down, but it was sold for taxes and Robert C. Fitzsimmons bought it and sold it to Mathias Watson, who tore it down and used the lumber for finishing the inside of the Watson house with the five gables, which was later burned.

Opposite the Church was the C. Saunders' house according to the map of 1876, but afterwards it was called the Patty Small house. George Watson bought this house and lived there. He married Eliza Ross, a sister of Robert Ross the china merchant in St. Stephen, and the Watsons had three children — Ross, Mary and Pauline. George and his wife are both dead.

ROSS is married and lives in the old home.

MARY married Claire Mallory and is now living in British Columbia.

PAULINE married a Mr. Newcombe, and is dead now.

A little farther on was the John Cluff house. They had two daughters, Martha and Mary.

MARTHA was the elder and married George Brittain, a shoe maker. After a few years they moved to Woodstock and built a very good home on Elm Street. They had one son.

MARY married William R. Wright, who was foreman in 1876 in the A. Henderson furniture factory. About 1890 he left the Furniture Factory and bought out the grocery business of David John Holder.

Next above was a very large hosue owned by Bailiff Samuel Watson. This is the house with the five gables. He also owned a house slightly back of his house which when I was a young child was occupied by a William O'Dell and family. In after years a Mr. Henry Green lived in it. He was a shoemaker and a great cartoonist. He could look at anybody's face and with a piece of charcoal and board could portray it. Many a time I have laughed at his pictures. In the Watson family were George, James, Mathias, Letia and Mary Jane.

JAMES WATSON was the one we spoke of who married Miss McNinch and lived in the Robert Smith house.

GEORGE married Miss Ross and lived in the Patty Small house as I have said.

MATHIAS WATSON married Sarah Ainsbury and they had three children. SAMUEL married Winifred Flemming, who died in childbirth. MARJORIE married M. J. Dooley and is living in Houlton, Maine. BASIL, who married Betty Hannon, is living in the old Trecartin house. Neither Marjorie or Basil have any family.

MARY JANE passed away about four years ago.

LETIA married G. N. A. Burnham, who was an excellent woodworker. He worked in our factory for years, and after the factory was burned down he worked in his own house. People from all over the country brought him mahogany work to re-finish and repair, and he carried on a very successful business. He was an Episcopalian and a very good bass singer. He sang in the Episcopal choir in Woodstock. They had two children — a son and a daughter. Both Mr. and Mrs. Burnham have been dead a number of years. JENNIE, their daughter, died the first year of the "flu" — 1918. LEONARD, their son, is living at Upper Woodstock.

In front of the house in which O'Dell lived stood the Phillips' Tannery. I do not know how many men they employed, and I cannot find out. Opposite there was the W. T. McCluskey house. The McCluskey family comprised:— William, Lizzie, Maggie, Woodman, Fred and George.

WILLIAM married Cordelia McLean, an aunt of Carritt Cox. They had two children, — Maud and Clyde.
MAUD married Mr. Wheeler, who died in a year.

CLYDE married a Miss Dow from Meductic and they have three children — Beatrice, Robert, and a little girl about six years old. He is a farmer and lives in the old Albert Brewer house.

LIZZIE married Elisha Moore. They are both dead. They left two children — Guy and Marguerite.
GUY lives in Massachusetts.

MARGUERITE is a great violinist. She married a minister.

MAGGIE married David McLellan from Richmond. They are both dead. They left one son, who is a boiler inspector at Millinocket, Maine.

WOODMAN married Isabel Brewer. They are both dead and left no children.

FRED married Amanda Shaw. They are both living and have two children — Roy and Maggie.
MAGGIE married Walter Sewell and is living home.

ROY married Marian McDonald. They have three children and live in the house my father built on the Jacksonville Road.

GEORGE married Annie Edwards from Meductic. They are both dead now. They had three children — two boys and a girl. One boy is a Minister and the other clerks in a store in Woodstock. The girl married a Mr. Gardiner, of Ashland, Maine.

The next house was the E. Willett house of which I have no knowledge.

Next followed the Stevens house and then the Pritchard house.

All I know about Stevens is that he built the house below Pritchard's, where Bill McCormack now lives. His family all moved away and I don't know what happened to them.

Pritchard built the house almost opposite the Dan Jackson road and lived there. Later Willie Wright lived in this house. Willie Wright's wife was a granddaughtrer of Pritchard.

Cornelisons were a colored family and they had a very small one-storey square house adjoining the H. M. Garden property. Mrs. Cornelison worked for Mrs. Garden a great deal.

From the Phillips' Tannery, on the opposite side of the road, the first house was the Joe Noble house. He married Jennie Brown and was a local preacher after the Reformed Baptist sect was started in the early 80s. This house was sold to Melburn Seeley, who lived there for years, then Fred Jennings bought it and he lives there now.


Next, down in the field nearer the river, was the Daniel Jackson house. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson were an admirable old couple — hard workers and always at it. Mrs. Jackson would walk to Woodstock and back as brisk as a girl after she was eighty years of age. Daniel Jackson was a carpenter of no mean ability. Mrs. Jackson was a most capable woman and whenever there was sickness she was sent for and many a one owes his life to her ministrations. As I have said before, there were no trained nurses in those days and neighbors meant something then. The Jacksons had three children:— Sarah, Annie and David.

SARAH married Johnson Emery, from Woodstock. He was a sewing machine agent. She was a marvelous cook as I should remember as she made my wedding breakfast. Mr. and Mrs. Emery had nine children:—

ALLAN, married and lives in Cleveland, Ohio. I have no knowledge of his family.

ALICE, was a Mrs. Davis and lived in the United States but is now dead.

WILLARD, married Bessie Ferguson, a Scotch girl. He was a very clever young man as I knew him and was bookkepper for Fred Moore in the milling business, and afterwards for Fred Moore's son, Miles.

BYRON, died of yellow fever in Florida.

ANNIE, who married Laurence Howard, lives in Ottawa and has no family.

RAY, went to the United States, and the family, who have not heard from him for years, suppose he is dead.

BESSIE, who was the second wife of Austin Hartley, lived in Montana but was drowned some years ago.

GRACE never married. She was a trained nurse and died in the United States.

INEZ, married an Italian and lives in Boston and they have no family.

Mr. and Mrs. Willard Emery had four children:—

ALLAN was working at a bank in Woodstock when he went out hunting and accidently shot himself.

AUSTIN works in a bank there now.

JEAN, married a McElroy. They had one child and she lives in Fredericton now.

GRACE, works in the Bank of Montreal in Woodstock.

ANNIE Jackson married Lew W. Alterton. He was a piano agent. They had two children — Bessie and Pearl. At one time they kept the Turner House in Woodstock. Mrs. Alterton was awonderful cook and catered for many of the large social functions in Woodstock.

BESSIE, married Harry W. Curry from Hartland and they moved to Boston, where Harry was an accountant. Later the Altertons followed them to Boston and they bought a beautiful property in Arlington Heights. Bessie was a very pretty singer and took part in many concerts in Woodstock. The Currys had one son, Douglas. He is in business in Arlington, is married, and has one little girl. They visited Hartland this summer (1939) in August. Mrs. and Mrs. Alterton are both dead.

PEARL Alterton, is a bookkeeper in Boston.

DAVID, married Jennie Brewer, a dressmaker, and they had six children — Ivan, Neva, Sarah, Miles, Jennie and Harry. He was a bridge builder and, like his father, was good at his trade. He is well and favorably known throughout his native Province. He is still living at eighty-one years of age and has given me a great deal of this information.

IVAN, was in the World War, and married a girl in London. They live at Upper Woodstock in the old Stoddard house and his father lives with them. They have three children — Mary, Lillian and David.

NEVA, is a nurse in New York, and served in the World War.

SARAH, married Cleveland Perry, and lives in Cody's, Queens County They have one son, a teacher. He is teaching in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.

MILES, served in the World War, and was drowned in Lake Erie in 1933.

JENNIE, is a nurse in Springfield, Mass.

HARRY, was killed in the Great War.

Think of this record: Three sons and a dauther served in the Great War.

Following is a copy of the Obituary of Mrs. Daniel Jackson, written by W. B. Wiggins, editor of "The King's Highway," and published in that paper in 1905:

"The following account of our aged sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson, widow of the late Daniel A. Jackson, who died at her old home, Upper Woodstock, Monday, February 6, 1904, at one o'clock a.m., after three days' illness, in the ninety-fourth year of her age, will be of much interest to all who knew her.

"Sister Jackson had been as well as usual this winter, going out to meeting or visiting the sick, as weather permitted, when on February 2nd, Thursday, she complained in the evening of not feeling well with a pain in her back as though she was taking cold. She had been sewing during the day. Simple remedies were used which gave her relief. But she remarked that probably this was her last illness and if it was, it was all right, as she was ready to go. She continued weak and notwithstanding all the care that loving daughters and kind neighbors could give she grew gradually weaker and quietly pased away to her heavenly home on Monday morning the 6th instant. She had really died of old age. The sands of her time had run out.

"Our aged sister was born in Fermanagh County, north of Ireland, May 24, 1811. Her father, William Johnston, at one time possessed a large estate there, but lost most of it through going security for a ship captain in a business venture. He then concluded to come to America, where he had brothers and sisters. He embarked on board ship at Derry with his wife, whose maiden name was Sarah Graham, and three children, Eleanor, Frank and Elizabeth, the subject of our sketch, who was then only two years and a half old. The vessel on which they sailed came pretty near being wrecked on the coast of Scotland, and intending to sail for Quebec, they were driven by storms and gales out of their course and at last arrived at the harbour of Saint John, N. B., and came up the St. John River to Lincoln, Sunbury County, where they settled near the home of Mr. Glasier, about five miles below the City of Fredericton.

"Here were born to Mr. Johnston a daughtrer, Margaret, and a son, Robert, when the mother died. Here Elizabeth, when only ten years old was converted while praying out in a field, under a large beech tree, having been convicted under the preaching of the late Rev. Samuel Hartt. And some years later she united with the Free Baptist Church in Lincoln. The late Mrs. Joseph Noble, wife of Rev. Joseph Noble, was one of her youthful companions. Here at Lincoln Elizabeth lived for several years in the home of Major Howard. When she was nineteen she came to visit her sister Eleanor, who had married a Mr. Gallagher, then living in South Richmond, Carleton County, N. B. Then after several years she met Mr. Daniel A. Jackson, whose home was at Upper Woodstock, and they were married August 31, 1837. Here she spent the remainder of her life.

"Her family consisted of four children; Henry, who died about thirty years ago; Sarah, Mrs. Johnston Emery, living on the old homestead at Upper Woodstock; Annie, Mrs. Leonard Alterton, of Woodstock, and David, now in the Klondyke. Her husband, Mr. Jackson, died about twenty-three years ago. Her sisters and brother, Frank, are dead. Only one brother, Robert, is married and is living at Lincoln near the old home. Her sister, Margaret, Mrs. Kenney, of Presque Isle, Maine, died about three months ago. Sister Jackson possessed a robust constitution, which kept her alive and in health though she met with a number of severe accidents, one of which injured her back, causing her to stoop.

"She was very active and busy even down to old-age. She was one of the best of neighbors, as they all can testify. No one was sick or in trouble but our sister was there to sit up nights or give consolation. She was an excellent housewife and loving mother. She endeavoured to follow her Saviour to the best of her ability, and when the doctrine of sanctification began to be taught over twenty years ago she sought and found to the joy of her heart the fulness of God's blessing for all who consecrate and believe. And from that time onward she declared, both in private and public, that the blood of Jesus Christ cleansed her from all sin. A few years ago she united with the Reformed Baptist Church in Woodstock and often she would walk from her home, two miles distance, in order to be present at the early morning social service in the church Sunday mornings, remain all day, and then walk back again after the evening service All were glad to see her as she was a pleasing conversationalist, of a happy disposition, and had always something to say to both old and young about the power of Jesus to save and keep the soul from sin.

"She delighted in attending conventions for the promotion of Bible holiness and was at the last one held in Woodstock last November for a few days. Her prayers, testimonies, and expression of strong faith in God will not soon be forgotten. She had no fear of death and looked forward with joy to the time when she would reach her heavenly home.,

"The funeral took place on Wednesday afternoon, the 8th instant, and was largely attended by her neighbors, a number of friends, her daughters, and grandchildren. Rev. B. Colpitts and W. B. Wiggins conducted the service and her body was laid to rest in the cemetery near her home to await the resurrection of the just."

J. W. Brown's house was just aross the road and in 1876 they were old people. Mr. Brown was the village blacksmith and had a blacksmiths' shop on the Court House road opposite Randolph Ketchum's. His daughter, Jennie, married Joseph Noble and they joined the Reformed Baptist Church, which was begun by Rev. Aaron Hartt in the early 80s. The Rev. Hartt came to Upper Woodstock from the United States and lived in the Joseph Noble house. Jospeh Noble moved up and lived with the Browns — his wife's father and mother. Lydia Brown married Joshua Crawford, who worked in our factory.

I cannot remember what family Hartt had, but I remember Julius, the son, went to school when we did. He played the organ very nicely. The Hartts were all musical. I never knew anyone by the name of Hartt who could not sing. Hartt started the new religion — afterwards called the Reformed Baptist, and they taught instant sanctification and perfect holiness, which were new doctrines to us. "The first Reformed Baptist Church was organized as a Church in Woodstock in 1888, November 3rd, in the Main Stret Baptist Church. James E. Drysdale, of Woodstock, was president; Rev. W. Kinghorn, of St. Marys, York Co., vice-president; W. B. Wiggins, of Moncton, recording secretary. In the evening the first church of the new denomination was organized and called the Woodstock Reformed Baptist Church"

Next to Brown's house was the Rev. George T. Hartley's house and store. Mr. Hartley was a Baptist Minister, but joined the Reformed Baptist. His house was large and had a store in part of it and his son, Austin, used to clerk in the store. The Hartleys had five children — Julius, Alma, Ernest, Austin and Napier.

JULIUS, went West when quite young. Years after this Austin and Napier followed

AUSTIN, married Alice Jones, the jailer's daughter, who was a school teacher. She died in the West. He came home and married Bessie Jackson and returned to the West, where he and NAPIER are still in business. Mrs. Austin Hartley, the second wife, was drowned.

ERNEST, died when a young man.

ALMA, was a music teacher, and a very lovely girl. When her parents died she went West.

The Hartleys kept boarders. Mr. and Mrs. W. T Kerr and J. W. Astle boarded with them. Alma, Mrs. Kerr, J. W. Astle, and myself enjoyed many hours of singing together.

Across the street was the H. M. Garden house. It is still standing. Mrs. Garden, widow of H. M. Garden, was a very kindly woman. Her granddaughter, Cassie Bull, from Woodstock, lived with her and went to school at Upper Woodstock, which at that time was the High School of the County, and when we would run in after school, Mrs. Garden would always give us sugar cookies. You see how memory clings to the little things of life I think you should always be kind to children. So many times bad manners in children are just the mirror of their treatment by older people. Her husband was a Government surveyor and a very fine man. The Gardens had six sons and two daughters — Charles, James, Alice, Herbert, Arthur, Henry, Julius and Mrs. Birdie Bull.

CHARLES was a civil engineer like his dad. He was a member of the first C. P. R. survey across the Rocky Mountains. He married Alice Connell, daughter of Hon. Charles Connell, and died in Woodstock May 11, 1922.

JAMES Garden was Mayor of Vancouver at one time and died there.

ALICE, was Mrs. Wilmot Balloch, of Centreville. The had three children:— Guy, Pauline and Jack.

GUY, is living in the United States.

PAULINE, married Willard Carr, of Woodstock. Willard died in New York while on a trip. Mrs. Carr is now visiting in Woodstock, but is a trained nurse in New York.

JACK, is in the West somewhere.

HERBERT, married in Montreal — one son, Mackie, lives there.

ARTHUR, married a Miss Georgie Stephenson, from St. Andrews. He died some years ago, but his wife is still living in Woodstock.

HENRY, was West for years, but later returned and died in Woodstock.

JULIUS, married a Miss Newcombe from Andover, and they had two children, a boy and a girl. The girl married Percy Burchill.

MRS. BIRDIE BULL lived in Woodstock., She had he following children:—

CASSIE, Mrs. Willard Carr, Woodstock.

MAGGIE, married Dean Neales, in Fredericton.

LIZZIE, married Mr. Verner, from the United States.

ALLIE, married Mr. George Clark, from Saint John, and lives in Fredericton now.

NAN, married George F. Beckwith.

Across the street, next to the Hartleys, was the A. Henderson warehouse, that I have already described.

Opposite the Henderson factory at Upper Woodstok was the Patterson House or Hotel. It was a large, two-storey house, and in my time it was not used as a hotel, but rented to two families. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Brewer lived in one part of it, and Isabella, their daughter, went to school when I did. She married Woodman McCluskey, as I have already told you.

Next, the "Trecartin House," which was a hotel of no mean reputation. Walter Trecartin and his sisters kept this hotel for years; then Walter married a Miss Crillon, who had been cook at the home of Dr. Stephen Smith in Woodstock. Mrs Smith was one of the leading hostesses of Woodstock, and so Miss Crillon was a very expert cook and the Trecartin House lost none of its prestige when she took charge

You must not forget that Upper Woodstock was the Capital of the County at this time and when Court was in session the lawyers, and I think the judge too, took their dinners at the Trecartin House. Of course we had no social doings for these people in Upper Woodstock. They drove down to the Creek for that, and many parties were given during the Court season by Dr. and Mrs. Stephen Smith, Mr. and Mrs. David Merrit, Mr. and Mrs. John C. Winslow, Hon. Charles and Mrs. Connell, Hon. George and Mrs. Connell, Dr. and Mrs. Charles Connell, Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Dibblee, J. T. Allan and Mrs. Dibblee, and many others.

The leading lawyers from Fredericton and Saint John were very often heard in Carleton County. Lawyer Needham from Fredericton and Louis Peter Fisher of Woodstock used to cross swords very often in court. Our school would be let out early to allow the senior department to go over and listen to the lawyers addressing the jury and cross-examining the witnesses, or to hear the Judge pronounce the judgment.

The leaves of memory turn back and I can see the jury filing out of the courtroom to consider their verdict.

1851— L. A. Wilmot was Judge of the Supreme Court for many years and Governor in 1868.

1865 — Hon. John C. Allan was the Attorney-General.

1865 — Wm. H. Needham, lawyer, Fredericton, N. B., was elected to Parliament in York County.

1868 — George E. King, Saint John, N. B., was Supreme Court Judge in New Brunswick, and afterwards was on the Supreme Court of Canada.

1870 — A. R. Wetmore was Judge.

1878 — J. J. Fraser was Attorney-General.

1883 — Andrew G. Blair, Premier of New Brunswick until July, 1896. He resigned to enter the Dominion Cabinet as Minister of Railways.

George F. Gregory was a wonderful speaker. Many a time I have listened to his oratory — when pleading a case. he also was a Judge.

1882 — J. J. Fraser was a Supreme Court Judge.

The Trecartin House was up on a small hill, as also was the Patterson house. They had a large yard and large barns, and their farm ran straight back quite a bit. There was a large common between their place and the Court House Road. We used to run over this waste land as a short-cut from our garden gate, through the Trecartin's yard, to the Factory.

James W. Brown's blacksmithshop faced Court House Road and ran back some distance, on the lower edge of this common. Up the road a bit was an old cellar from someone's house, I hever heard whose, and next was William Ferguson's barn, and an orchard and field up almost to Court House Square.

On the corner of Main Street, after an open space, from Trecartin's, was the William Mulligan house and shop Mulligan was a butcher. I think they had one daughter — Maggie. I know notheing of their history after I left Upper Woodstrock.

The Mulligan house is still standing and a Mr. Crouse and family live in it.

On the site of the blacksmith shop of J. W. Brown Billy Moray built a very comfortable little house. He married a Miss Thornton from Nackawick. He worked for the C. P. R. all his life and died July 6, 1938. They had seven children — Marvin, Mary, Esther, Jack, Ray, Alice and Ruby.

MARVIN, married a Miss Sewell and lives in Woodstock.

MARY, is dead.

ESTHER, is a trained nurse in St Stephen.

JACK, is in the United States and doing very well.

I do not know what the other three are doing.

Jusyt opposite was the house and store of William McIntosh, and the River Road ran past their house straight to the river. This was our sliding ground every winter. Such a lovely long hill, and sometimes when the river froze evenly, without great cakes of ice piling up on the shore, we could run right out on the river. What fun we had. Those were the days of real sport. Mr. McIntosh was a school teacher before the Free School Law came into force in 1871. They had a very comfortable house and store fronting on Main Street with a lovely large garden back of the house running along the River Road. The house was a storey and a half frame building, with the side to the street, and half of the first flat level with the street was a store. Their front door and parlor faced the street. The house was built on the side hill and they had a lovely basement, with a door opening on to the River Road, and another door opening into their garden Many happy hours I have spent in this house..

Mr. and Mrs. McIntosh had four children — Donald, David, Nellie, (and as Wm. McPherson was Nellie's nephew there must have been another sister who married a McPherson, but I have no recollection of her).

DONALD, was a handsome young man as I remember. He left Upper Woodstock and went West as so many other did at that time.

DAVID, came next and he was a very tall young man. He worked with us in the Factory for a time, then went to Vancouver, B. C., and was in the business concern of Burrard Iron Works.

NELLIE, married a William Murphy in Montreal, and I visited her there years ago. WM. McPHERSON, her nephew, worked for us for years, but I do not know anything about him now.

Mr. and Mrs. McIntosh are both dead long since.

The only house on the River Road was the farmhouse of George Jackson It was back from the road, on the left-hand side going down the hill, and the gate leading to it was a short distance below the side door to the McIntosh house on the opposite side of the road. The Jacksons had lovely apples there, but they always kept a very cross dog. I was always afraid to go in there, except with May Jackson. George Jackson was her uncle, or her father's uncle, I do not know which. But if we ever got in safely Mr. Jackson would give us some beautiful apples. After W. R. Wright left our factory, he bought this property and lived there. He married Mary Cluff and they had six children — Allan, Harry, Arthur, Betty, Burton, and one died in infancy.

ALLAN, is married and lives at Upper Woodstock in the McIntosh house. He works for the C. P. R.

HARRY, is a mechanic and is working at Juniper for Flemming & Gibson.

ARTHUR, is married and has two children — a boy and a girl. He lives on the old homestead.

BETTY, is a registered nurse in Montreal.

BURTON, is married and has eight children. He works at the Canada Packers in Woodstock.

      (Betty and Burton are twins).

W. R. Wright bought the David John Holder store and ran the groery business for a number of years until he sold it to Roy Dow. W, R. Wright died September 27, 1936, and Mary, his wife, died May 31, 1937. I will speak again of his work in the care of the Presbyterian Cemetery.

On the right corner, coming up the hill, as I remember it, was a vacant lot where had been the shop of Earl Brown, Wheelwright, but it was not there in my time. Next to this was the Cromwell house. David Hipwell bought this from Randolph Ketchum. They used the basement and first storey, and rented the top storey to Mr. and Mrs. C. Alexander. David Hipwell was a pleasant Irishman, whom everybody liked. His wife was a very quiet and lovely woman. They had four children — Annie, Mary, Harry and Jack. After the Factory was burned down they moved to Woodstock and David went into the insurance business. He was a great Orangeman and Conservative, and worked as Organizer for the Orange Order for years

ANNIE and MARY were both extra good stenographers. Annie worked for Hartley & Carvell for years, and Mary was secretary for Hon. J. K. Flemming for years. They moved to Saint John.

HARRY, learned the drug business and was a Registered Druggist. He went West and started a drug store in Chilliwack, B. C., and is there now. He is married and has four children. He is a leading man in that city.

JACK, was studying at U. N. B. when the war broke out and he went to France. He was killed in action in 1916, being a Lieutenant in the 5th Battery, C. F. A.

In a letter from Annie Hipwell, dated January 29, 1940, she said that while they lived in Upper Woodstock her Aunt Bertha Hutchinson lived with them for a time. She married Charlie Fowler (nephew of Mrs. Holder's) who had a grocery store and the post office there for several years. They afterwards moved to Presque Isle, Maine. He died years ago. Aunt Bertha lives with her daughter, Fern (Mrs. Kimball) in Somerville, Mass.

MARY, married a Mr. Friend, an electrical engineer. They had a lovely home on Floribel Avenue, San Anselmo, California. His health failed and he died several years ago. They had one child, a girl, Margaret. Mary and she live now in the same place.

Mr. and Mrs. Hipwell and Annie moved to Saint John in 1910, where he accepted a position as agent for the Canada Life Assurance Company, which he retained until his death in 1930. Mrs. Hipwell died in September, 1927.

ANNIE, worked in Saint John for a number of years while her father and mother lived. After their deaths she went West and divides her time between Mary's in California and Harry's in Chilliwack. At present she is living in her own apartment in Chilliwack, B. C. and I receive letters from them every year.

On the corner of Main and Court Streets stood the large brick house and store of Randolph K. Ketchum. This was about the best house in the village — two and a half storeys high with large store on the ground floor and with centre door and large glass windows on either side and on the right the front door for Mrs. Ralph Ketchum's house upstairs. They were very long stairs, I remember, for the store had a very high ceiling. Mrs. Ralph Ketchum was a widow when I knew her. The family consisted of Randolph, Ada, Blanche, Maud and Woodford.

RANDOLPH, kept the large store and for years was our leading merchant. He was such a fine man — so good-hearted and clever. He married a Miss Inez Clayton from Ashland, Maine, and she was a very lovely woman. Randolph bought the produce from the farmers and always gave then the highest price possible, and many a time lost money on his ventures. When he got into business difficulties those very farmers did nothing to help him out, and although his business failed after many years, no one ever blamed him or thought him dishonest. It was just chnaged business circumstances that he could not cope with. He ran a large hay press and sent hay to the American market. After the Reciprocity Treaty (1854-1866) expired he did not have as good a market, and this may have had some influence on his reduced business.

ADA, was a beautiful girl and a lovely musician. She taught music. As her health was never robust, she faded and died while very young.

BLANCHE, was a school teacher and I went to school to her. We all loved her, but shortly after Ada's death Blanche contracted tuberculosis and died.

MAUDE, was also a school teacher. She taught a few terms, but gave it up to keep books for Randie, as he was called by everybody She and I were about the earliest lady bookkeepers in this County. Maud was older than I, but I began bookkeeping earlier than she — so we were fond rivals. She was engaged to be married to Mr. Green, who was manager of the Iron Works, but her health gave out and she waged a losing battle with the grim disease her sisters had died with, and in a few years she was gone.

Poor Mrs. Ralph Ketchum was such a brave soul. She tended these three lovely girls and buried them all, and still went on living, without complaint and was always cheerful. I want to record a tribute to her memory:—

  "Oh! though oft depressed and lonely
    All my fears are cast aside
When I but remember only
    Such as these have lived and died."

Next came WOODFORD. We went to school together. He was an awful torment. He sat directly back of me. Our school desks were then all double desks. They were graded up according to size — small ones across the front, then next size and so on. I had very long hair and Woodford used to tie it to the back of my chair and when I started for class — whoa! — I made a sudden stop. Woodford worked for Randolph for years, then went to Houlton, Maine, where he married Kate Hamilton and bought a farm there. They had two sons. His wife died and he is married again and still living in Houlton. I will tell you more about R. K. in another chapter.

Next to the Ketchum property was the Ferguson house and shop. Wm. C. Ferguson was a harness maker, and they had a very comfortable home. He married Sarah Sawyer and they had two children — Clarence H. and Edgar. Everybody had a trade in those days.

CLARENCE was a lawyer in the City of Saint John and married and had a family. He studied law in the office of Allen & Chandler. He died October, 1934. In our schooldays Clarence was always such a gentleman, and I would like to pay this respect to his memory.

EDGAR, died when he was nine years old.

In 1887 Mrs. Ferguson died and Mr. Ferguson married again — a Miss Mary Watts — who outlived him.

Directly in front of William Ferguson's shop was the town pump which was used for fire purposes The fire engine was kept in a small house on the Court House Road.

Next was the corner house. It was owned and occupied by Aaron Gans, a German. He lived there and carried on a meat business for years, as long as I can remember. His son, Joe, still lives in Upper Woodstock. This house was bought by a Mr. Harper and later bought by Mr. Harry Cowan and was owned by him when it was burned.

I will cross the road again now and continue on where I left off at the Cromwell house and store.

Next was the Phillips store on the map, but in my memory it was a boot repair shop run by Randolph Britton, who married Rhoda Phillips. Later he gave up the repair shop and ran a butcher shop. They had one son, Stanley Britton, who lives at Lower Woodstock now and keeps a wonderful Tourists' Home with overnight cabins called "Ledgemont." He married a Miss Wiggins from Lakeville and they serve the best meals on the St. John River — at least they did when I was there.

Next came the David John Holder store and house. Mr. Holder was a very valuable citizen. He was a Methodist in religion, and Superintendent of the Union Sabbath School that we held every Sabbath, summer and winter, for years. The Rev. George M. Campbell, the Methodist minister in Woodstock, came up to Upper Woodstock for service every other week, I think, and Mr. Holder held a "Class Meeting," they called it, in his house once a week in the evening. The young people from all the churches liked Mr. Campbell so much that a great many of us attended these meetings. In the summer evenings we used to walk up to Mr. and Mrs. James Thomas Smith's on the Flat for class meetings.

The Cromwell house, and the Holder house, and the Britton house were built on a side-hill and each had a basement, woodshed, and kitchen. Mrs. Holder had her sitting-room back of their store, and a very pleasant room it was, with the afternoon sun shining in the windows, filled with pretty plants. They were an estimable couple, and the Methodist Church lost two devoted members when they died. William R. Wright bought out the Holder store and ran it for years and sold it to Roy Dow.

Next, the William Sisson house and store and post office. The store was large with two large glass windows on either side of the door, and a house-door on the south side, and a long hall with stairs to the upper flat and down two steps into their living room. Their kitchen and dining room were back of this, then the shed and barn behind this. It was a very good property. Mr. Sisson was the postmaster. He also had a farm up on the Jacksonville road with an orchard. We used to go to his meadow to pick strawberries, but he strongly objected to this as he said we ruined his grass. Their family consisted of two girls — Georgie, who married a Mr. Ebbett, and Ada, who married Ned McMullin, our upholsterer. Mr. and Mrs. Sisson are long since dead and the girls have moved away, but the house is still standing.

In 1880 W. S. Sisson sold the property to Robert Stephenson, who kept the post office there until 1886, when he moved to Woodstock and sold this property to George B. Wolhaputer, who married Gertie Phillips, and they kept the post office for years.

The next house was the old Sisson house. It was a pretty one with an enclosed veranda entrance and Dr. Reynolds had his office in this building. He was an old English doctor, and very skilful, but very odd. He boarded up the Jacksonville road at Archie Plummer's. No one else lived in this house that I can remember of. It was burned down long since.

Next to this was a little old building that Mr. Brown used as a work shop and at one time my father worked there also.

Next was the old Frank Sharp house Mr. Sharp built this house and lived in it afer he came to Upper Woodstock in 1848, and when Norris Best left Upper Woodstock, after the Iron Works were given up, Sharp bought the Norris Best house and grounds, and Mr. and Mrs. John Jennings, an English gardener and his wife, lived in the old Sharp house. I used to carry milk to them in that house, so I remember it very well. Mr. and Mrs. Jennings bought a farm in Newburgh and moved there, but he still came back to work for Mr. Sharp when he was needed. They had a family of boys. I visited them when they lived in a little log house down by the brook in Newburgh and oh! my! the mosquitoes were plentiful. After a few years of infinite hardship they built a large frame house up on the hill, in sight of the railroad, just past Newburgh Station that was then, and their gardens were a dream. In the midst of the potato field would be a line of sweet peas — an eighth of a mile long — just one line of beauty and you could pick to your heart's content. In the garden proper you could find all kinds of lovely blooms. I could not enumerate them, but such a vision of beauty you seldom see. They had no need of riches, as the world terms it.

  "Full many a gem, of purest ray serene,
    The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear;
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
    And waste its sweetness on the desert air"

"Far from the madd'ning crowd's ignoble strife,
    Their sober wishes never learned to stray;
Along the cool sequestered vale of life
    They kept the noiseless tenor of their way."

The Jennings were very superior people. John Jenning's produce always brought a higher price than the ordinary. If we could get his maple syrup, we were sure it was pure and was not made of brown sugar, and we were pleased to pay a higher price for it. He was about the first farmer to bring shelled peas to market and sell them by the quart, instead of by the peck in the pods, the way we had always bought them. I can remember his new land turnips My they were sweet.

The Jennings had seven boys — Edwin, Charles, Malcolm, Lingley, Fred, Percy, and one died in infancy. I wish to copy below a letter just received from Edwin Jennings, of Newburg Junction, N. B.

Newburg Junction, N. B.        
January 10, 1940.              

"Dear Maud:—

"In regard to our family history I will gladly give you any particulars you wish, but as we only lived about two years in Upper Woodstock we could hardly be called natives of that place although father and mother made many dear friends during their stay.

"John Jennings was born near Liverpool, England, in December 1859, (son of John Jennings who at that time was head gardener to the Earl of Derby at Knowlsby Hall).

"He had three brothers, one of whom, Edgar, served in the British army and saw service in the Zulu War of 1877, also served in Hong Kong. Henry, who was a gardener, lived in Woodstock for a time and moved to the United States; also Charles, who came to New Brunswick in 1882, but returned to England and entered the postal service. All are now dead.

"Father came to New Brunswick in 1872 and worked as a gardener and greenhouse manager for Mr. Grosvenor at Meductic for two years, or until he was married.

"Mother, whose maiden name was Louise Eugenie Foex, was born in Geneva, Switzerland, in March, 1851. She was well educated in the French language and served as governess and companion to two different families in England to whom she gave instructions in French to children. One of these families did a lot of travelling and she met father on one of their trips, and after he came to Canada they corresponded until she came out too.

"Father met her in Saint John and they were married there and came to Woodstock at once, where father went to take care of Hon. George Connell's greenhouse (now the Sunder estate). They were married June 13, 1874, and lived about two years in Woodstock, then moved to Upper Woodstock, where father went to work for F. P. Sharp in the nursery business.

"In October, 1878, we moved out here on this farm. Mother died August 1, 1905, and father died May 4, 1923.

"Here are our names and ages:—

EDWIN JOHN, born April 3, 1875. Married June 30, 1903, to Minnie Louis(sic) MacLachlan of South Newbridge. We have two children—

THELMA LOUISA, born April 6, 1904, married to Henry Boyer, of Upper Woodstock. They have four children. Thelma taught school six years before she married.

ROBERT MALCOLM, April 16, 1909. Graduated Electrical Engineer, U. N. B., 1930. At present manager of small appliance department General Electric Co., in Toronto, with whom he has been since 1930.

CHARLES EDGAR, born September 28, 1877, was a carpenter and builder in Brookline, Mass. He was unmarried and the one your mother called her boy He died in 1918.

JOHN MALCOLM, born March 8, 1880 Also a carpenter and woodworker, having learned the trade at Hayden's factory in Woodstock. He was also unmarried, and died in Newcastle, N. B. in 1905.

FRANCIS LINGLEY, born January 25, 1882, married Violet McDonald, of Kentville, N. S. They have one daugher who is a teacher. They reside at 403 Prince Street, Truro, N. S. He is a travelling salesman.

FREDERICK EUGENE, born April 8, 1884, married Rebecca Jane Morehouse and they have three children living and two grandchildren. He lives in Upper Woodstock and is section foreman on the first section north of Woodstock.

PERCIVAL REGINALD, born July 11, 1886, married Jane Eaton, of Bridgewater, N. S. They have five children and two grandchildren. He is a conductor on the C. P. R., and resides in Woodstock.

"Wishing you every success in your venture, I remain,

  Your old friend,



Ed. Jennings



Chapter VII.


"The Flag Pole was erected in the triangle between the River Road and the Jacksonville Road to commemorate the march of the 104th Regiment through Woodstock. There were 550 men in His Majesty's Regiment, who marched on snowshoes from Fredericton to Quebec, leaving the headquarters in Fredericton on February 14, 1813, and reaching Quebec, March 17, 1813 — a period of thirty-one days."

We are right at the Corner now. Facing us is the River Road, running north, and at our left hand is the Jacksonville Road. I am going to follow the River Road first, and come back again to this point and take up the Jacksonville Road.

At our left, on the corner, is the W. Chip Hazen house. In 1876 the old house was strill standing and in use. Years after this Mr. Hazen moved the old house back from the road and built a very nice new house on the same site. Mrs. Hazen was a Miss Jane Ann Cutts, from England, and came to this country with the Cadmans. Mr. Cadman was the engineer in the Iron Works while Mr. Norris Best was the manager. The Cadmans lived in the Hazen house and their family consisted of Fred, Albert, Norris and Maggie.

FRED, was a cripple and lived his life in a chair and died in 1938.

ALBERT, went to school when I did and was drowned in Lane's Creek when quite young.

NORRIS, was an electrical engineer, like his father, and went to Quebec and worked there for years and died there.

MAGGIE, (whose mother died when she was born) was a very sweet little girl. She and Minnie B. Sharp went to Ladies' College in Compton, Quebec. They were the only ones in the village who had this advantage. They were both musical and certainly added to the culture of our village. Maggie married T. C. L Ketchum, a lawyer and journalist in Woodstock. They had three children.

JAMIE, the eldest, was killed in action in the World War.

ELIZABETH married an Episcopal minister and died a year after her marriage.

ROWENA, is a Mrs. James Calkins(sic) , in St. Stephen.

Mr. and Mrs. Ketchum are both dead. T. C. L. Ketchum wrote a "History of Carleton County" and it is a most interesting and authentic history.

CARL died February 27, 1927.



Across the road is the Churchill house, which was originally built by a Mr. Marven, who sold it to David Munro. David Munro was born at Taine, Scotland, in 1814, the only son of David Munro and Ellen Baine. He graduated from Taine Academy and when a young man came to Canada. He sought employment at the old Iron Works at Upper Woodstock and later became assistant manager of the company. In 1854 he married Caroline Rose and ten children were born to them.

David Munro conducted a large general store at Upper Woodstock and carried on extensive lumbering operations in the surrounding country. In 1865 he was elected as Conservative member to the Provincial Legislature at Fredericton. Following his retirement he was made Recorder of Deeds for the Counties of Victoria and Carleton, a position which he held until his death in 1886 at the age of seventy-two years. His family were as follows:— Donald, Jennie, Mary, David, James, Charles, Caroline, Jessie and John.

DONALD, born 1855, married Maude MacFarlane, of Woodstock, September, 1877 They had six children:— Fred, Archie, Gordon, Malcolm, Kenneth and Carrie.

FRED, died a young man.

ARCHIE, married a Miss Marsten and they had one child, Margaret. Archie died a few years ago. Mrs. Munro and Margaret are still living.

GORDON, is married and lives in Boston, Mass. They have a family.

MALCOLM, is married and lives in Moncton, N. B. They have a family.

KENNETH, died shortly after the World War.

CARRIE, married George Dibblee, of Woodstock. They have three children.

Donald was elected to Parliament in 1908, and also in 1912. He was given the office of Registrar in 1916, which office he held until his death (April 14, 1939). In 1919, he married Carrie Leighton, who survives him.

JENNIE, born 1856, married Henry Jamieson, of Richmond Corner. They had one child, Nina Jamieson, unmarried. Jennie died in 1898.

MARY, born 1858, married G. Whitfield Slipp, merchant in Woodstock. They had six children:— Arthur, Maude, David, Jean, Eleanor and Leonard.

ARTHUR L. Slipp, L.L.B., deceased, survived by his widow, (Beulah McAllister), and eight children:— Pauline, Mary, Charlotte, Whitfield, Robert, Ruth, David and Shirley Anne.

MAUDE, Mrs. D. R. Manzer, Saint John, N. B. They have one child, Jean Elizabeth.

DAVID Munro Slipp, M.M., deceased, survived by his widow, Elizabeth Cross Slipp. David was a veteran of the World War, and for many years conductor on the Gibson Railway. His early death was very much regretted by the public.

JEAN HELEN Slipp, deceased, unmarried.

ELEANOR, Mrs. R. F. P. Abbot, of Woodstock, N. B., widow of Lieut. R. F. P. Abbot, Carleton Place, Ontario, pilot of Royal Naval Air Service during the World War.

LEONARD G. Slipp, B. S. C., deceased, unmarried.

G. W. Slipp died in 1930 and Mrs. Slipp in 1931.

DAVID Munro, born 1859, married Nina MacKay, of Renfrew, Ontario. He worked in the Bank of Nova Scotia at Woodstock, and then went to Montreal, where they are still living. They have one son, William David Munro, unmarried.

JAMES Munro, born 1861, married Susan Dalling, of Richmond. They had one son, Paul Munro, of Toronto. Susan died in 1888 and later James married Arilla McDonald and there were two children, twins, Norman and Muriel. Norman deceased, and Muriel lives in New York.

CHARLES, born 1863, married Mrs. Margaret MacDonald, of Rexton, N. B. She had one child, Eileen, Mrs. George Morrison, of Santa Barbara, California. Charles and Margaret had one son, Charles, of Vancouver, B. C. He served as Lieutenant in the World War.

CAROLINE, born 1862, married Frank R. Beveridge, of Andover, N. B. They resided in Vancouver, B.. C., for many years, but finally moved to Powell River, B. C., where they both died in 1938, leaving one daughter, Jessie, the wife of Major Robert Carlisle McKenzie, of Powell River, B. C., a veteran of the World War. They have two daughters, Carol and Lorna.

JESSIE, born 1864, married Howard P. Wetmore, of Clifton, N. B., both deceased.

JOHN, born in 1872, died in 1900.

There are twenty-four great-grandchildren in the Munro family.

Mr. Churchill bought this house about the year 1868 from David Munro, who moved to Woodstock. He was the owner of the house when the map was drawn in 1876.


In 1877 Nehemiah Ayer was the school teacher in Upper Woodstock, and he and Mrs. Ayer lived upstairs in this house, on the up-river side. He went to McGill College in 1878, studied for a medical doctor, received his degree and settled in River Hebert, Nova Scotia, where I visited them in 1889.

I was often in this house as I took extra lessons from Mr. Ayer in the evenings and singing lessons from Mrs. Ayer. At that time Sam Boyer from Victoria Corner boarded with the Ayers and went to school in Upper Woodstock. Issie Shea from Grafton came up for school. We had the Superior School for the County in those times.

When Mr. Marven built this Churchill house, so called, his daughter, who was an artist, decorated it with murals. Above the mantle are sea scenes with cliffs and houses dotted about. Under one of the windows downstairs is a woman carrying a child. Upstairs under the windows are very quaint and pretty paintings of bunches of white flowers on a black background. Also upstairs there are landscapes — one looks like Phillips' Flat, with an old barn and a hillside. These paintings are still in good condition.

Albert Brewer was a bridge contractor. He came to Upper Woodstock in 1877 and bought the Churchill house. His family consisted of:— Alfred, Ida, Mattie, Laura, Clarence, Margaret, Holland and Todd.

ALFRED, was a very clever boy. We went to school at the same time, and he was the one I was always trying to get ahead of, but with no avail. When he went to the University of New Brunswick at Fredericton, in 1882, I felt very deeply that I was not allowed to go. My father thought I was crazy — girls did not need a University education. The law was passed in 1886 to allow women to enter the University, so my father's position was not a single instance but a determined fact in the life of the community. The first U. N. B. lady graduate was Miss Mary K. Tibbettts, in 1889. Well, Alfred was a very clever student and after graduating from U. N. B. took a position in the C. P. R. He married Jennie Tilley, from Waterville, and they had one daughter — Dot. Mrs. Brewer was a very pretty singer and so was her daughter, who is married and living in Maine. Alfred died February 5, 1904.

IDA, died at the early age of eighteen years, December 12, 1887. I believe she had a form of tubercular trouble.

MATTIE, married J. Frank Tilley. He was very prominent in the dairy work of this Province. They are still living and have two children, Carleton and Jean.

CARLETON is in the brokerage business in Saint John, and is married and they have two children.

JEAN married Cecil Stewart, in Woodstock. He is in the hardware business.

LAURA, died in infancy.

CLARENCE is living at Presque Isle, Maine. He has several farms up there and is in the potato business. He has three sons:— Albert, Wilfred, Burtt.

ALBERT, the oldest, is engaged in farming at Presque Isle.

WILFRED, is a doctor living in New York.

BURTT, is with the International Harvester Company, at Presque Isle.

MARGARET, married Woodside Loane, formerly of Woodstock. They have been living at Presque Isle for quite a number of years She died very suddenly June 10, 1939.

HOLLAND, is married and living in Presque Isle. They have one son, — I suppose you would call him a potato broker, as he buys for a firm in Virginia. Hollie, as we always called him, was a bridge builder and contractor, and was also in the mining business at Minto. He has been living in Presque Isle for some time and has been engaged in construction work there. His wife died Februay 19, 1935. He has one adopted daughter married and living in Newport, Rhode Island.

TODD, died May 13, 1909.

Next below the Hazen house and garden was the house owned by the Cox Estate. It was a small storey-and-a-half house. Randolph Ketchum brought his bride to this house. She was a pretty Yankee girl — Inez Clayton, by name — from Ashland, Maine. They lived in this house for years, until his uncle, Col. Richard Ketchum, moved to Woodstock and Randolph bought his home on the Jacksonville Road.

The J. S. Patterson house came next, followed by another small house owned by the Cox Estate.

On the other side of the road was the Earl Brown home. Mr. Earl Brown was a wheelwright. The Browns had two children, Hubert and Ida.

Hubert was a carpenter like his father, and Ida was a school teacher.

IDA, married a Mr. Lewis Peter Fisher Fletcher. I remember that she was a beautiful writer. No printed copy book was any better than her writing.

HUBERT, married a Miss Noddin and they had several children. He went to Boston and worked at his trade there, while his wife ran the house and took care of the old people as long as they lived, also her own children. She was a tailoress by trade before she was married. Their children's names were: Claude, Milton, Austin and Ida.

IDA, married George Dunbar, in Woodstock, and Mrs. Brown lived with her and died there. The Dunbars live in Cabano now and they have two girls:— Agnes (married Fulton Smith), and Jean, who is living at home.

The three boys are in the States.

Next came the George Brewer house, up on the hill. Mr. and Mrs George Brewer's family consisted of Alonzo, Emma, Charlie and Annie.

ALONZO, worked with his father in the carpenter business and married Lily Birmingham. They lived in the Cluff house, just opposite the school house, when I was going to school. They had no family. He moved to Brookline, Mass, and was a contractor annd builder there for years. His wife died there and later he came home and married Georgie Good, in the Jacksonville Methodist Church, and I played their wedding march, December 18, 1895. They resided in Brookline, Mass. A few years later his health began to fail and he gave up his business and went to Denver, Colorado, for his health, but he never recovered and passed away and is buried in Denver.

EMMA, married Henry Phillips, a C. P. R. official in Woodstock, and they had seven children:— Harry, Brewer, Clowes, Allen (who was drowned when a child), Mabel, Florence and Nan.

HARRY, lives somewhee in the West and he has five children. Miss Annie Hazen received a letter from his sister, Florence, who is a nurse in a hospital in Brooklyn, New York, a few days ago and this is what she said: "January, 1940. Harry's family — two sons are Majors in the Canadian army and have gone overses. One is an instructor in Calgary and expects to go over in the Second Division. One is a radio operator in the navy. One daughter married a major who has gone overseas, and they have one little baby which was only two weeks old when the father left for England."

BREWER was a manager of a Royal Bank of Canada in Montreal, but he developed tuberculosis and retired some years ago. He married a Miss Margaret Snow from Newfoundland, some relative of Mrs. Harry Noble, in Woodstock. She nursed him at one time. They took the world cruise and he seemed to be improving, but when nearing Cape Town, South Africa, he passed away very suddenly. She left his remains in Cape Town.

CLOWES, lives somewhere in Quebec.

NAN, married a cousin of Annie Hazen — Dr. Roy Grimmer — and they have two children: Dr. Roy, Jr., and Alyenne. They live in Hempstead, Long Island.

MABEL, is a nurse in a sanatorium somewhere in New York State. Neither she nor Florence ever married.

CHARLIE, I think died when a young man.

ANNIE, and I were chums. We went to school together and sang duets together. She had a pretty alto voice and was a very pretty girl. She married someone from Boston and died of tuberculosis.

  "They grew in beauty side by side,
    They filled one home with glee.
Their graves are severed far and wide,
    By stream and mount and sea."

The Earl Brown house and the George Brewer house have both been burned down. The two houses owned by the Cox Estate and the Patterson house were burned. Another house was built on the Cox property by Tom Abbott.

Opposite George Brewer's house was the Knox Hotel. I remember Granny Knox very well. She was an old Scotch woman. She wore a large white cap and spoke very broad Scotch. Her son, Jimmie, and his wife kept the hotel.

Gideon Jackson bought this place. William McCormack married his daughter and they lived there for years. They had a large family. His wife died and a few years later (about five years ago) the house was burned.

Going in the Foundry gate and down towards the river there was a house on the Foundry lot where the McAndrews lived. They were a Roman Catholic family. The McAndrews moved to Upper Woodstock when the Iron Works opened and worked at the Iron Works. There was in the family:— James, Thomas, Jennie and Willie. Jennie and Willie went to school with us. After the Iron Works closed they moved back to Saint John and I have never heard of them since.

Next came the fine house of F. P. Sharp. There was a driveway to the house from the side next the Knox Hotel, and another gateway was farther up the river, but farther down the hill. Just below the second gate was the old road to the Jacksontown Iron Works. It went straight up back of Sharp's Grove and through the Went Winslow farm. Winslow had a large barn on the upper side of this road and large meadow lands. We used to go strawberrying in these meadows. The road came out on the Kinney Road almost opposite the Loomer farm in Jacksonville and was used only by the teams hauling iron ore from Jacksontown. It never was a public road.

The Iron Company office was just opposite this road The old kilns for burning charcoal were on the side of the road next to Sharp's, but the furnace and the iron works were on the other side.

In the Sharp family were Minnie, Franklin, Humboldt, Lizzie and Jennie.

FRANKLIN, as I have stated before, followed the orchard business like his father, and died in 1892 of tuberculosis.

HUMBOLDT, was also an orchardist. He had an orchard across the river on Sharp's Mountain, as it was called. He married a Miss McKenzie. He was still in business in 1906 in Upper Woodstock. After this date he went to Salmon Arm, B. C., and is living there now. I don't know about his family.

LIZZIE, carried on Franklin's orchard for a number of years after his death. She died early in life.

JENNIE, married Dr. W. D. Rankin, the most clever physician we ever had in Carleton County They had four children:— Franklin, Marjorie, William Donald, and John Francis.

Mrs. Rankin is still living, but Dr. Rankin died April 3, 1928.

FRANKLIN, was killed in action in the World War.

MARJORIE, was married to a Mr. Coleman. She died in 1926.

WILLIAM DONALD, is a medical doctor in Halifax, N. S. He was in New York for a number of years.

JOHN FRANCIS, studied law in Cambridge, Mass. He came back to Woodstock after his father's death and was somewhere in Ontario for years, but is now in Saint John.

Minnie Sharp was a very clever student. She had great advantages as her father made lots of money at that time and she, as I have said before, went to Compton College in Quebec for a few years. Following this she went to New York, where she studied piano with Dr. William Mason, and voice with William Sherwood, and others. She paid $5.00 an hour to William Mason for piano instruction for eight or nine years, and $4.00 for half-an-hour vocal instruction. She spent six months of every year in New York during these years, and in the summer months she gave lessons in Upper Woodstock and afterwards in Woodstock at $1.00 an hour for piano, and 75 cents for thirty minutes in voice. I am giving you these figures so that you can see what a great contribution Minnie B. Sharp made for the art of music in Carleton County. Pupils came to her from all over the County. She was a marvelous teacher.

I took lessons from her every summer from 1882 until 1895. In 1889, 1890 and 1891 Arthur Neville, from New York City, a wonderful violinist, came here during the summer seasons and studied his violin. He used to practice six to eight hours every day, and I remember the lovely evenings we all enjoyed preparing for concerts and learning new music. Beth Walker was his half-sister and she spent several years in Upper Woodstock studying with Minnie. She became a noted pianist.

On July 18, 1889, Minnie had a concert in Woodstock in which the following people took part:—

MR. ARTHUR NEVILLE, from New York.
JENNIE TILLEY, from Waterville.
MRS. SHAW, from Hartland.

On June 2, 1890:—


On June 12, 1890, Minnie arranged a benefit concert for Alfred Letts, professor, who had been a teacher of music in Woodstock for many years. Those taking part in that concert were not all her pupils:—

, Banjo Solos.
MISS LULU JOHNSON, a Piano Teacher, (later Mrs. Ives).

Again on August 14, 1890, she had another grand concert in which the same performers took part, with the addition of F. L. Mooers.

And again on September 17, 1890, with the same performers, Miss Sharp went to the Opera House at Houlton, Maine, and had a very successful concert.

On June 4, 1891, Miss Sharp and her pupils mentioned, with Miss Lizzie Gilmour, assisted by Rev. J. M. Davenport from Saint John, and Herbert Grant from St. Stphen had another concert.

On November 10, 1891, we all went to Saint John and held a concert in the Opera House there for the Young Memorial Fund. Young lost his life trying to save another from drowning in Saint John Harbour and the people of Saint John erected a monument to his memory in King Square.

, Saint John, a wonderful tenor, assisted.

The next concert in 1892 had the same performers, with Annie VanWart added.

In the year 1896, June 1st, Minnie Sharp went to Victoria, British Columbia, and opened a Conservatory of Music there. She had Miss Elizabeth Walker, of New York, for her assistant teacher, but some way the Conservatory did not prosper under her direction and she left it with Miss Walker and returned to New Brunswick in 1897 and began teaching again in Woodstock. Annie Hazen told me in a letter just recently received that Minnie was married to Tappan Adney on September 12, 1899 in Saint Luke's Church, Woodstock. She had six bridesmaids (Annie Hazen was one of them). The reception was held at the home of Hon. W. P. Jones, 94 Main Street, Woodstock.

She was a very talented woman, and like all exceptionally talented people, she was unlike the ordinary person. She was bound to keep the orchard business that her father started, but people with exceptional talents in one line, are very often deficient in the more common talents, and business was not Minnie's forte. In the later years she got into business difficulties and worries and had a very hard life and this interferred with her teaching to quite an extent. She died April 11, 1937.

The Adneys had one son, Glen, who was musical like his mother. For years he led an orchestra in Montreal. I do not know what he is doing now.

I do not remember just where the Raymonds lived but I think it was near the Foundry — on the flat. In the Raymond family there were four children:— Rachael, Olivia, Mattie, and a boy (I cannot remember his name).

OLIVIA, is Mrs. Frank Atherton, of Woodstock. They had one daughter, who married Wilbur Grey(sic), and the Greys have two daughters, Mrs. Clinton Dickinson, of Woodstock, and Mrs. Wendell Day, of Cape Cod, Mass.

MATTIE, is Mrs. Mattie Montgomery, of Debec, N. B.

Just below the kilns was a large gate that led into the pasture where all the cows of the village were pastured. They roamed all through acres of woodland, and it was some job to find them and drive them home for the milking. We always had one cow, and sometimes two, and it was my job to find the cows and drive them home and milk them. My father hated to milk cows and as I was always willing to do anything to save dad, I learned to milk and after that I always had it to do. Dad tried to get my sister, Emma, to learn to milk. She was almost seven years older than I, but Emma would not learn. She said if she learned to milk, she would have to do it, and she just would not learn. She was afraid of cows anyway. We did not have to go to the Y.M.C.A's or other gymnasiums for exercise in those days. We had plenty of exercise in our work, which had to be done, and we were "plenty ready" for sleep when the time came.

Just opposite this gate was the house belonging to Owen Saunders. I do not know what became of the Saunders family.

Next was the Lane's Creek Bridge, and on the point where the Creek joined the St. John River there was always an Indian encampment. I went down there and taught the Indians and squaws how to put cane bottoms and backs in chairs. I went over to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the "Windsor Furniture Company" did a large business in all kinds of furniture. Their rattan rockers, and cane-seat and rattan chairs were sold everywhere. It was a very large factory, employing a hundred men. It was burned down.

The foreman of that factory for twenty-five years was Isaac M. Sharp, a friend of my father's. They had learned their trade together in Saint John, so that is how I went to their factory to learn how to put cane bottoms in chairs. We made a great many chairs and the Indians did the cane work. Year after year in the old books I see the names(sic) of John Solace so many times. He worked for us, and his wife and family too. Gabe Joe was another.

Dr. Polchis, an Indian, came into my home in Hartland one day. He and his family lived across the river from Hartland in the summer, and then went down to Lower Woodstock in the winter, where the houses were better. I was putting a new bottom in an old chair. "My! do you know how to do that?" he asked. I laughed and said, "It looks as if I did." "Why," he said, "a little girl taught me how to do that years and years ago at Upper Woodstock. I thought a lot of that girl. I have often wondered where she is." I asked him if he would know her now? "Maybe not," he said. "Well," I said, "I did not remember you, so I suppose I will forgive you for not remembering me."

I had not remembered his name and I did not happen to see it in the books, which was not to be wondered at, as I had pasted over so many of the old record books using them for my scrap books. I think they called him Chief Polchis One of the Indian women came to me one day at Hartland and said they were going down to Woodstock for the winter and she wanted a pair of men's pants to wear out in the woods getting lumber for baskets. I looked around and gave her a pair of Mr. Miller's pants and she went away happy. That was in November. Next year, in May, she came to see me again She did not talk very good English. She said, "I brought money." I said "Oh! no, dear, I gave you the pants. I don't want money." She said "Your money." Then she showed me that there had been $2.00 in one of the pockets and she had kept that money for six months and returned it to me. How is that for honesty? I tried to get her to keep it, I was so pleased, but she would not. She only said, "Your money."

Well, when you came up from the Indian encampment, on the Hartland side of Lane's Creek, just opposite was the brick yard belonging to Sydney Smith. It was right in under the hill and you could see the fires and works when you were sliding down the hill on the other side of the creek. I do not know how many men were employed at this brick yard, but quite a few. It was a prosperous business in my time.

You cross the road again and go up the hill a bit and you find a gate to the driveway of the James Thomas Smith house on the flat. Just as you turned at the top of the hill to descend to the house, you were arrested by the beauty of the landscape. You were on a very pretty gravel road overhung with maple and birch trees and a zig-zag fence traced the top of the hill. There was an abrupt descent over this fence right down to the beautiful St. John River. You could see down the river to the steeples of the Woodstock Churches and the bridge across the St John River at Woodstock, which was at the upper end of the town at that date.

  "And the evening sun descending
Set the clouds on fire with redness,
Burn'd the broad sky, like a prairie
Left upon the level water
One long track and trail of splendour."

"I gazed and gazed but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought;
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude."

Memory calls up the vanished past again. I really think this view that I have spoken of is one of the best on the St. John River. It has lost none of its beauty The bridge is in the foreground now.

In the Smith family there was only Mr. and Mrs. Smith and Sydney. Mrs. Smith was a Miss Eaton from Saint John and a very superior woman. Mr. Smith was a great Methodist and loved to shout "Hallelujah!" in the prayer meetings. He often surprised strangers, but the natives all knew him. Mrs. Smith died and he marrried again. After he died, his second wife sold the place to Heber Connell, who lived there for a number of years. It is now owned by Dr. Grant of Woodstock, who bought it for a summer home. Heber Connell has been dead for a number of years. I do not know anything about Sydney Smith.

The next house on the flat was the Fisher house., This house was built by Col. Richard Ketchum, who gave the Court House and Jail to the County. This house was built of hand-hewn timber. This house was bought by Mr. and Mrs. Fisher, and in my time was always known as the Fisher house. You went back to the main road and drove down another driveway to the Fisher home, about an eighth of a mile further on. Mr. and Mrs, Fisher were very English,. They used to drive to church or town in a pretty phaeton carriage, and I remember perfectly the day Sarah was married. She married R. B. Porter, a dry goods merchant in Woodstock, and they had two daughters:— Jessie and Mary.

JESSIE married Foster Thorne who died in 1909 in Woodstock.

MARY was a nurse and married a Mr. Hanson, and lives in Milltown, N. B.

Zophar Phillips bought this house and he and his family lived in the Fisher house for years. After his death, Davis Phillips and his wife lived there. The house was burned and rebuilt while the Phillips lived there. David Phillips sold it to Mr. Spear.

At the top of the next hill was the Charles Ketchum farm. This was a lovely old place, and I think Mr. Ketchum was an old bachelor or a widower. In the spring we used to walk up to the grove opposite his house and pick wintergreen leaves and May flowers. This house and farm is owned and occupied now by Edward Ball.

This is the extreme end of the village. I will now go back to the Corner and begin on the Jacksonville Road.



Chapter VIII.


Now we will take the Jacksonville Road. The Chipman Hazen house on the right-hand corner going out was one of the oldest houses. This property belonged to the Col. Richard Ketchum Estate and was deeded to a Mr. Carman on February 12, 1845, and later Mr. Hazen's father bought it. I think I have given a description of this property before.

Next above this was the Randolph Ketchum hay-barns and hay-press. William McCluskey was the one in charge of this plant, but there were other men always employed here too. I will quote from a letter I received from George Hamilton, Calgary, "I see in my mind the old beater hay-press, the big plunger, and the pressure put on to make the bales tight. Lovely timothy hay and clover shipped to Boston.


Randolph Ketchum did a large business in all kinds of farm produce in his store on Main Street, besides this hay-press business The large yard of the hay-press was shut off from the road by a large gate and we children were forbidden to enter, so I did not know much about how they did things.

Just opposite was the old store of Colonel Richard Ketchum. He was a son of the Col. Richard Ketchum who gave the Court House and Jail to the County. This store was a small building, a storey and a half high and was just used as a storeroom when I was a child. Col. Richard Ketchum lived next in a low storey and a half house with a lovely veranda encased in green shutters and a door from the street. Their front door was inside this veranda. Col. Richard and Mrs. Ketchum had two children:— Frances Maria, called Ritie, and Frank. They had a lovely large garden with fruit trees and raspberry bushes in it and it extended right through to the Court House Road. Ritie and my sister, Alice, were the same age and were always good friends.

RITIE, married Duppa Smith in Woodstock, and they had five daughers:— Maud, Marie Marguerite, Madeline Eliza, Charlotte Gladys and Dorothy Elizabeth.

MAUD, married Stewart Close, New York.

MARIE MARGUERITE, married Edwin Miles, Charlottetown, P. E. I.

MADELINE ELIZABETH(sic) , married Reginald Holland, Montreal, P. Q.


DOROTHY ELIZABETH, is a dietician in Wisconsin.

FRANK, married Olive Barton. They lived on a farm at Houlton Maine, and had five children — three sons and two daughters. Frank and his wife are both dead.

When Colonel Richard Ketchum and family moved to Woodstock in 1881, G. Randolph Ketchum bought this home and moved from the River Road, where he had been living.

Their first three children died very young, Eva, Sarah and Charlotte. Then they had four children:— Ralph, Rowena, Nina and Charlie.

RALPH and CHARLIE, are in Colorado, U. S. A.

ROWENA, died with tuberculosis.

NINA, is Mrs. Martin Adams, in Ellsworth, Maine.

Mrs. Ketchum, Inez, died and Randolph married her sister, Abbie, from Ashland, Maine, and moved to Ashland and bought a wonderful farm there. He has been dead a number of years. The brick house and store, of which I have already spoken, was burned in August, 1927, while Guy Clark was keeping store there.

My old home came next and I was very happy there. It was a small house but very comfortable, and we had a large yard, even with the house, and back of that a large garden extending to the Court House Road. We had a small entrance gate off the yard, and an exit gate to the Court House Road. The path ran straight through the middle of the garden. We had apple and plum trees there, black currant bushes and gooseberry bushes, and rhubarb. We grew all the vegetables we ate in the summer season — peas, beans, cucumbers, lettuce, not potatoes, and squash. In the season, after school, we would have to pick the currants and gooseberries. Mother and Emma weeded the garden. I never wished to shine there. I was always afraid of worms, and it was a great cross to me to pick gooseberries for fear of the green grubs that were on them. I do not know whether they have grown any larger with the years or not, but my memory of them holds good to this date. I do not remember that we had as many caterpillars as the people have now, for every person looked after their own trees and did not leave them for the Government to spray.

We always had a hop vine too, and gathered the hops and made our own yeast and our own bread. In the front yard, where the old shop had stood, we had the ground levelled and a croquet ground made, and here we enjoyed the summer evenings to the full. Sometimes we played by moonlight and again by candlelight. The wires were made so that you could put a candle in each wire and so see when your ball went through all right. It was a game of skill and very enjoyable.

Our family consisted of A. H. and mother, Alice, Emma, Robert, Annie, Willie, Maud, and a baby who died in infancy.

ALICE, married Colonel John D. Baird, from Grafton, and they had nine chikldren:— William Alexander, Louise, Margaret, Harris, Helen, Kenneth, Robert, Alice, Wilfred.

WILLIAM A., married Ida Winters, from Orillia, Ont., and lives in Port Republic, New Jersey. There are in the hennery business and last year received about twenty awards on their pure bred stock. In the laying contest one of his hens secured the silver cup for New Jersey. They have no family.

LOUISE, married Frank L. Brown, a druggist in Winnipeg. They have two children — Mabel and Robert. Mr. Brown died in 1934 from heart trouble. MABEL is married to Reginald McMillan, secretary for the C. N. R. manager, western division. They have two children. ROBERT is in the employ of the railway in Winnieg.

MARGARET, married Charles R. Freeland and he is a merchant in Elnora, Alberta. They have no family.

HARRIS, married Stella Winters, from Orillia, Ont., and lives in Los Angeles, California. They have three children — Elinor, Ruth and Kenneth. Elinor married W. W. Wilson and lives in Wala Wala, Washington. They have two children:— Jane and a baby born Christmas Day, 1939. Ruth is Mrs. Robert Campbell Fyke and lives in Glendale, California. Ruth has a baby girl, Marilyn, born December 21, 1939. Kenneth is in California.

HELEN, married Fred B. Hebert, in Winnipeg. Later they moved to North Dakota, then to Minneapolis, where Fred died. They had three children:— Evelyn is in Seattle, a bookkeeper. Fred is in Hollywood working, and Robert is in Minneapolis with his mother.

KENNETH, is in Winnipeg. He married May Dowling, of Brandon, Manitoba, and they have one child — Harvelene Ann. He was in the World War and received a number of medals. (He is now a Captain in the army and engaged in training soldiers in Winnipeg). He was wounded and invalided home in 1917 and he went back in 1918 in the spring and was in the army until it disbanded in 1919.

ROBERT, was in the World War for the length of the war. He suffers much from rheumatism from being in the trenches. He married Dorothy Battershall, and lives in Winnipeg.

ALICE, married Gordon Thorpe and they have two children — Kenneth and Margaret. Kenneth is studying aviation. Margaret is a clerk. They live in Troy, New York.

WILFRED, died in the Carman General Hospital, Manitoba, in his fifteenth year, of appendicitis.

Colonel John Baird died in Elm Creek, Manitoba, after suffering with asthma for seven years. The climate in Manitoba did not agree with him. Alice died in Selkirk General Hospital, Manitoba, of diabetes.

The thing that is sad to me, as I write, is that the grandchildren of Col. W. T. Baird, who was ever a soldier and loyal to the British Crown, should be under a foreign flag, and that my sister's children should be Yankees. They say they cannot get a job there without taking out naturalization papers. Why do we not have laws like this in Canada?

EMMA, never married. She lived in Upper Woodstock and Woodstock nearly all her life. She was fond of travelling and was across Canada and the United States three times visiting her nieces and nephews. After her father and mother died she went to Chatham and lived with her niece — Jean Nelson — three years. She died in Fisher Memorial Hospital, Woodstock, January 6, 1933.

MAUD — I am Maud. I was married to Samuel S. Miller on September 6, 1899, and we lived in Hartland until November, 1925, when we moved to Fredericton. We have three children:— Jean, Alexander and Muriel.

JEAN, maried Francis E. Nelson, September 5, 1927, and they live in Saint John and have a business on Charlotte street. They have one child — Samuel Lewis, named after his two grandfathers. He was born March 2, 1937.

ALEX. R. Miller, was married to Flora Britton on June 7, 1928, and they have two children:— Robert and Patricia. We have always alled him "Bobs" after Lord Roberts, who became a hero in many hard-fought battlefields, and in the South African War, which began in 1898 and lasted several years. He won over a lost cause and his name was on everyone's lips.

"Bobs" is a registered druggist and is an employee of the Estey & Curtis Co., Lid., and lives in Fredericton.

From Carl Ketchum's "History of Carleton County" —

"Canada provided her quota to this fighting force, and a Carleton County detachment of artillerymen left Woodstock on the 11th day of January, 1900. They were given the rousing send-off they deserved and on their return on January 17, 1901, with no single loss, although they participated in several engagements, their reception was most enthusiastic. The County Council gave the returned veterans a banquet and each man was presented with a gold watch." They were under the command of Lieut.-Col. W. T. Good, commonly called "Bill."

Harry Dysart, who worked in our Factory up to 1889, was one of these soldiers.

A peace treaty between the Boers and British was signed in 1902

MURIEL is a writer and lives in Toronto. She was educated in Hartland School, then Fredericton High School one year, then the University of New Brunswick, where she received her B.A., then two years in Toronto University and received her M.A. in English, then she had two years' work in special studies at the Toronto University and has published two books: "Bliss Carmen — A Portrait" and "Homer Watson, the Man of Doon." These books were both published by the Ryerson Press, Toronto. She has also written a Series on Canadian Artists for "Onward" for 1938 and 1939, and has written another Series for this winter. The first one for this year was published in the January 14, 1940, issue and one will appear every two weeks during the remainder of the winter.

Across the street from our house was the Charles Jackson house and barns. They kept the cleanest yard and woodshed that I have ever seen. They swept the yard with a broom, and in the warm summer weather they used to sit out in the yard under the trees. They had a large swinging gate going into this yard through which the horses were driven on their way to the barns. There were two children:— Howard and Fred.

HOWARD, married Dolly Wilson from Wilson's Beach, Campobello, N. B., and they lived with his father for a while in Upper Woodstock, but after a few years they moved to Campobello and Howard ran a large store there, right at the wharf at Wilson's Beach. He built a fine house there, and one summer Emma, and Grace Hovey, from across the river, and I went there for a month's vacation and had a wonderful time. Dolly died after a few years and Howard married again and had a family. I think some of his family live there now.

FRED, I cannot recall.

Mr. and Mrs. Jackson died and the property was rented to Jerry Holt. He married a Miss Yerxa, from Fredericton, and they had one daughter Mary. I used to take her out in her carriage when a baby. Jerry Holt was a well known C. P. R. conductor for many years and died at their home in St. Stephen after he had been superannuated some years.

MARY, is married and lives in Calais, Maine.

Then Mr. and Mrs. John Riley lived in this house and their daughter, Ethel, who married Archie Plummer.

Next to them was the Ivory home on the back road.

Just opposite our house, at the end of Samuel Hamilton's garden plot was the beginning of this old road, and it went back of the row of houses that faced the Jacksonville Road, and came out at the gate of Rev. Thomas Harvey's place. I do not know what this old road was used for because it was a regular swamp and you could not drive up and down it without getting mired. We used to walk up, but would have to pick our steps on the sides of the road. It was shorter than the main road.

In the Ivory family there were Kathrine, Mary, Tom and Johnnnie. They were Roman Catholics. Mrs. Ivory was an Irish woman, and had the native Irish wit.

KATHRINE, married a Mr. Keefe, from Lakeville, and their son was a very clever young man. He attended school at Upper Woodstock. Mrs. Keefe was a very pretty woman.

MARY, was a pretty girl and worked for Mrs. Howe in Lewiston, Maine.

TOM and JOHNNIE were day-labourers.

The barns of Samuel Hamilton came next on the back road. Their house was on the Jacksonville Road. Their garden formed a triangle with the point between the two roads in front of our house, and the square of it parallel with their house. They had a road between this garden fence and their house. Mr. Hamilton's farm was over a mile up the road, so he drove his team in this road past his house and down the little hill to his barn on the back road. His hay barn was on a level with the house, with a shed between. Mrs. Hamilton was an Emery from Jacksonville. They had one son, George, and I am going to copy a letter I have just received fom him, dated December 29, 1939, from Calgary, Alberta.

"I have five grandsons. My daughter REBA has four boys. My son, EMERY, has a little boy just past a year old — Donald Emery Hamilton — his dad is employed at the Customs House. My mother died the 28th of July, 1890, from heart disease, and was buried at the Episcopalian cemetery at Jacksonville. My mother's sister was Mrs. Broderick, and another sister was Mrs. W. S. Howe, of Lewiston, Maine. Hamilton and Scott Emery were her brothers at Jacksonville.

"My father sold his farm to Wood McCloskey and our house to a Mr. Brewer in the fall of 1893.

"I came west in November, 1892, and my father a year later. My father's sister was Mrs. Wheeler from Florenceville. Mrs. Wheeler's dauighter Minnie, married Mr. Parlow(sic) , and their daughter Kathleen is a world-renowned violinist.

"I called to memory those people you mentioned in your history. Do you know how it came to get the name Hardscrabble? A man was building a house and a friend came along and asked him how he was making out. 'Well,' he says, 'It is a hard scrabble.' Still I think to the most of us it was real good. I remember those dear old families, a few I might mention — W. Winslow and his sister and mother, the Ketchum family, Mr. Dan Jackson, George Brewer, and others.

"I see in my mind the old beater hay-press, the big plunger and the pressure put on to make the bales tight. Lovely timothy hay and clover shipped to Boston. I also recall the old schoolhouse and hall. W. T Kerr and Charles McLean, teachers, the former for six years. Your father and my father and F. P. Sharpe, trustees, and business carried on in tip-top style. I can see the beautiful maple and elm trees alternately.

"On our place were red and black currants, apple trees, two plum trees, gooseberries, high-bush cranberries. Besides we raised potatoes, rhubarb and cultivated strawberries. Our farm was between Good's and Charles Jackson's. There was quite a friendly rivalry between Mr. Jackson and us in raising red potatoes (Susies) to see who could raise the biggest.

"How well I remember the big turnips we raised. Twelve of them would fill a barrel, and how we enjoyed the apples — New Brunswickers, Fameuse, Red Astrakans, and Alexanders; and the lovely Jersey milk and cream from our cows. Howard Jackson, from Campobello, would buy our butter and pay five cents a pound more than for other butter.

"Then I recall to mind the hill running down to the river, the railroad spur, the bridge, and John Burpee crossing in his hand-car every time a train went over it, in case of fire.

"The big timbers of pitch pine (Georgia, U.S.) and the splendid fire it would make besides being useful for bridge work. Hayden's Island, lovely for picnics. I remember a picnic one time when John Walton, who lived on the Broderick place opposite the Good farm, rowed a boat filled with women and children across the river and struck a bar near shore. We had to carry everyone of them in our arms to shore, but got them safely landed.

"I used to be interested in attending the cases in the Court House. How well I remember Edward L. Wetmore, A. G. Blair and Mr. Gregory from Fredericton. They used to eat at the Trecartin House and gave it great praise.

"Before I close, I must mention the good work done by your dear sister, Emma, of departed memory, in the Sunday School and Church. The good that I learned then has been a bulwark to me. I will be seventy the 7th of February.

"You asked me about my father's family. Besides his sister, Mrs. Wheeler, he had three brothers in Calgary:— George, Robert and John. Mrs. Wheeler died in 1896. George died in 1897, Robert in 1899. My father died in January, 1909, and John died in 1933.

  "Kindest regards,





"Calgary, Alberta.      
January 24, 1940.

"Dear Friend Maud:—

"Your letter received and in reply would say that I feel amply repaid for your keen appreciation of any news that I gave you. I remember Billy Moray and the other boys you mentioned.

"Two of my teachers I recall to mind:— Ida Brown and Maud Ketchum. Ida married L. P. Fletcher, who was typesetter for the "Sentinel" newspaper. I enjoyed hearing Mr. and Mrs. Fletcher singing hymns in the old hall. I was so sorry to hear of the death of Maud Ketchum after I came out west. One day when Mr. W. Winslow and his sister, Mary, were calling to see her she requested them to sing 'Abide With Me,' and while they were singing she passed away. Truly a lovely girl. Another teacher, Minnie Wiley, was very popular with the little girls in school. They would run to meet her when they saw her coming to school.

"I picture the house next to the Winslows. Ike Stottard(sic) used to live there and then Saul Perley and family. One of the Perley boys was drowned in the river. Mrs. Perley was a Brewer. Then the Dunlap place and the old haunted Wiley house, where I got a good scare one night with a group of young people.

"I remember the artichokes, I used to eat, on the ground along the side of the house. The old Andy Nichols' place, where the Rileys, Olmsteads and Ogden families lived in their turn. How plain I can see the lovely plum orchard of F. P. Sharp that my father used to cultivate between the trees. Loaded with plums they had to be propped up in places. They were all laid down and staked and covered in the fall to protect them from the wintry blasts — beautiful plums that used to sell for $1.00 a peck in the box.

"What a wonderful sight to me, about six in the evening, to see them casting at the Iron Works. The row of brick kilns filled with the wood and burnt charcoal they used, and the hot molten fluid like lava running into little trenches. I can't describe it to you, but it was great.

"I remember the long hill down by the foundry and sliding down on a horse-drawn sled, a bunch of us had a merry ride from the old Knox house clear over the bridge at Lane's Creek.

"I remember Hubert Brown, a carpenter very capable of climbing church steeples. Charlie Brewer and Annie Brewer, both died of consumption, and also Alonzo Brewer shared the same fate. Alonzo, you remember, married Georgie Good.

"The Moray family lived at the corner of the Jacksonville and River Roads. Then there was A. R. Gans' meat shop, W. Ferguson's harness shop, G. R. Ketchum's store, W. Sisson, D. J. Holder, Mrs. McIntosh, George Hartley, farther east the Days and Donovans, old Mrs. Ivory on the back road. There was John and Tom and Mary. Mary was a hired girl for my aunt, Mrs. Howe, in Lewiston, Maine. She got married but died shortly after.

"Then there was Eli Sawyer. I remember the Negroes from Woodstock going to the funerals, and coming home would be racing, some going past your place and others round Sawyer's barn down the other road to Brown's blacksmith's shop and Mulligan's meat store.

"I think Alonzo Jackson, Henry Brewer, Will McCloskey all worked in the hay-press.

"About the Ketchum family. Eva and Sarah died as young children. Rowena and Nina, Ralph and Charlie were the children. Gabe Brewer's daughter was named after Rowena Ketchum.

"I will be waiting to see what you type, and any time I can help you I will gladly do so.

  "Sincerely yours,




After we moved to Woodstock, May 1, 1885, I used to walk up to Mrs. Hamilton's for breakfast very often and back again to my office in Woodstock at nine o'clock. They always were pleased to see me, and what a breakfast I used to eat — oatmeal porridge with cream and sugar (I never was Scotch enough to eat my porridge without sugar), toast (just the right shade of brown, made over hardwood coals. It surely had a better flavor that what we eat now made with the electric toaster), poached eggs (as Dr. Blair used to say to me "always fry your eggs in water"), coffee with cream, that was cream — Oh! dear!

  "But the tender grace of a day that is dead
Will never come back to me."

The Emerys were very fine and hospitable people. Sam Hamilton would take his double team and sled with seats in it and we would all add our own buffalo robes, and the Good family, the Hendersons and the Hamiltons would drive out, either to Scott Emery's or Ham Emery's and have such a supper as only the farmers' wives knew how to prepare. Then we would play dominoes, checkers, charades, and have some music and songs and a jolly good time. Then we would drive home again — always too soon. The next week the Emerys would all come in to our house, and then to Good's, and then to Hamilton's, and thus the winter passed away — each taking his turn in entertaining.

  "Simple joys and pleasures," as Goldsmith says.
    "From toil he wins his spirits light,
    From busy day the peaceful night,
    Rich, from the very want of wealth,
    In heaven's best treasures, peace and health."

The rest of the people of the village did the same — visiting their friends, and having their friends in turn. I only mentioned ours as an example.

Across the road was the Sawyer house. The Sawyer field and orchard extended down to our line fence. They had a barn next our fence in the early days of my childhood with the entrance from Court Street, but in the 70s some time they tore it down and built a high fence all along that street, with the gate at their barn. The house was a two and a half storey house with an ell then a long shed and barn attached. This line of buildings extended straight across from the Jacksonville Road to Court House Road, and there was a wide road between them and the School House and Hall, running as far as the Court House gate; but beyond this gate it was a grass-grown common extending to the line of the rear of the lot on which the Court House and Jail were built.


The Court House and Jail were inclosed with a fence and large gates with very high posts, say ten or twelve feet high, and these gates were kept closed except during court sessions. Along the fence from the School House there was a row of posts say four-and-a-half feet high and seven feet apart, with an iron chain running through them. The horses were tied to this chain. The early inhabitants would remember this. The Court House was a wonderful building in my recollection. It was by far the largest and best building in the village. It was also well finished on the inside. The judge's desk was very pretty. It was circular and almost like a pulpit, raised up three feet from the floor. The judge came in from his room right back of this desk and I have a faint recollection of the lawyers all standing as he entered. He wore a gown. The gallery went around three sides of the court room — from the judge's desk on the right around to the same desk on the left — and the long table where the lawyers sat, down the middle of the room, with the prisoner's box in front and on the Judge's right hand, between the table and the Judge's desk. The entrance was in the side towards the river. There was a lobby and a door into a hallway where you went upstairs to the gallery, and off this hallway were two doors into the jury rooms or the lawyer's rooms, whatever they were called.

The people of Woodstock were very insistent that the Jail and Court House should be taken to Woodstock, and to help them in this endeavor on one unlucky day for Upper Woodstock the jail was burned; and it was rebuilt at Woodstock. During the period of building the new jail they used part of the Court House at Upper Woostock for the prisoners, having rebuilt several rooms for this purpose. The jail was built in Woodstock in 1901 and the Court House in 1909.

Frank Hayden bought the Sawyer place and lives there, and the old Court House at Upper Woodstock he uses for a barn.

We surely learned lessons in oratory in those days. It may be that "Scenes from the past are ilumined," but I carry in my memory the stirring addresses that I have listened to in this old Court House which is desecrated now by being only a cattle shed.


In the Sawyer family were:— Howard, Julia, Sarah, Eli, Martha and Louise.

HOWARD, married a lady in Texas and early in the 80s he brought his wife home to Upper Woodstock, accompanied by her sister, Jennie Smith, and spent a few years. Jennie and I went to school together. Mrs. Sawyer was a very pretty and gracious woman and we were all sorry when they left again for Texas. They had two children:— Howard and Bessie.

JULIA, was the wife of Sam Watts, one of the editors of the Carleton "Sentinel." They had one daughter, Lulu, who married Herb N. Payson, a merchant in Woodstock, and one son, Grover, who worked at printing in the "Sentinel" office, and later went to Saint John and worked at printing. He married and had one son, Ralph. Both Grover and the son died in Saint John.

SARAH, married William C. Ferguson, as we have stated previously.

ELI, MARTHA and LOUISE never married. Martha died first and Louise and Eli kept house together for some years. Then Louise died and Eli went to live with Mrs. Johnson Emery in 1908. He sold the home to Byron Robinson, who in a few years sold it to Claire Mallory. Claire married Mary Watson, George Watson's daughter, and they are now living in Okahogan(sic) Valley in British Columbia. Howard came from Bonham, Texas, to take Eli back with him, as he was the last of the family, but he took sick and died in Woodstock some time between 1895 and 1899. Eli took his remains to Texas, and returned to Woodstock himself.


Next came the School House and Town Hall. The school rooms were on the first floor and the door opened off the Court House street. The door for the Hall was on the Jacksonville Road, and the stair was built at a right angle with a landing halfway up. At the head of the stairs was a hall with three doors opening off it. The first door went into a room where the wood was piled. The brooms and dustpans, and the scrub pails, etc., were stored in this room also. The next door was into an anteroom which was used as a cloakroom and there were cases in it to hold the regalia, etc, for our Lodge, and our Lodge paraphenalia, and a door went from this anteroom into the main hall. The third door opened right into the main hall. Facing this door at the extreme end of the hall was the platform, with the table on it, and several large armchairs. There were bracket lamps on each of the four posts that held up the ceiling, and also lamps on the walls. This hall was the centre of all the village activities. Here we had our Concerts, Temperance Societies, Prayer Meetings, Sabbath Schoool and Preaching Services, Lectures, etc. I have a record of a Concert held there in December, 1883, in which Mrs. W. T. Kerr sang "Days That Are Gone Seem the Brightest." Arthur Donoho from Woodstock, who was an excellent tenor, sang. Lulu Baird played and sang. J. W. Astle sang. Maud Henderson sang, "Tender and True Adieu." Mr. Dibblee sang, (I do not recall him).

The Methodist minister from Woodstock had service in this hall once a fortnight. I do not think the Prsbyterians had any service in Upper Woodstock during these years. Rev. Thomas Neales, the Episopal minister from Woodstock, came up every Thursday evening for service and I played the organ for him for years until we moved to Woodstock in 1885. Long years after this when I lived in Hartland, Mr. Neales came to me and asked me if I would play again for his service in Hartland in 1903, which I did for years. I have a prayer book that he gave me at that time and the hymnal. Mr Neales was a very fine, courteous, Christian gentleman.

There were a great many Free Baptists in Upper Woodstock and they held regular services until the Reformed Baptists were organized and most of the Free Baptists joined them, and they had services in this hall.

Our Sabbath School was a Union School. D. J. Holder, a Methodist, was Superintendent for many years, as long as I lived there. I received a leter from Mrs. Willard Emery the other day saying this Hall is seventy-five years old.

Now for the School. It is a hallowed memory to me. I always loved school. When you came in the door there was a small square cloakroom with many hooks and nails around it. On the left side the door opened into the master's room, which was a large room, and straight ahead when you entered was the door into the Primary Department. The Principal was always a man. One of the first that I remember of was Rupert Grover, W. C. Couillard was another, then Nehemiah Ayer (afterwards Dr. Ayer) 1875 to 1877, J. R. Murphy (afterwards a lawyer in Woodstock); W. T. Kerr from 1882 for six years, (the Kerrs lived in the Ferguson house and boarded Mr. Ferguson), Charles McLean, and others.

In the Primary room there was Blanche Ketchum, Maud Ketchum, Minnie Carman (a cousin of Bliss Carman's), Minnie Wiley (from Fredericton; she boarded with Mrs. William Ferguson in 1882; she married Dr. Jewett in February, 1883); Ida Brown taught for years and married Louis P. Fletcher, a printer in the "Sentinel" office in Woodstock.

If there are any teachers who taught here in the early years, that I have not mentioned, I hope that I will be forgiven but this is as far as my memory holds good.

There was a high board fence all around the playgrounds that also separated the boys' playground from the girls'; and thegirls' playground always held the woodpiles. There were no furnaces in those days — just large cylinder stoves or large box stoves — and they just sawed the cordwood into two pieces. There were long stove-pipes too and that added greatly to the heat.

Every Friday afternoon the Primary grades came into the Senior department and we had recitations, dialogues, singing, solos, and choruses, and debates and spelling matches. My that was fun and very instructive. I cannot see that the present-day teaching has anything on the old, although the present educationalists think that we of the past knew nothing. We surely did not have such a diversified curriculum, but we surely knew more of the subject in hand than they do today. I know we did a lot more studying. This idea that children should not have home-lessons is an awful farce. How can you learn if you do not study. How did the inventors, all our great men, attain greatness? How?

  "The heights by great men reached and kept
Were not atained by sudden flight
But they, while their companions slept,
Were toiling upward in the night."

Is it not a great deal better for children to be home studying their lessons than running wild around the streets, to the movies, etc? I cannot understand what they will ever be good for. The country children are taking the worthwile places because they have to work and they learn endurance, while the poor city children have nothing to do, and they are getting too lazy even to carry in the bit of wood they are required to do. It reminds me of the tramp asking alms. The lady said "Why don't you work?" "Well, you see, there is nothing doing in my line. I shovel snow, but we haven't had any yet this winter."

F. P. Sharp, Samuel Hamilton, and A. Henderson formed the Board of Trustees for years. My father was Secretary and I did the work. I remember making out the tax lists and sending out the tax notices, year by year.

It was part of the Trustees' duties to visit the school every term on examination days. The terms ran from May 1st to November 1st, and from November 1st to May. The winter term was called the "long term" for there was only one week's vacation in that term, and a whole month in the summer term.

The house opposite the School was occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Alonzo Brewer when I went to school, but after that Randolph Britton lived here, and after that the Cluff family lived in it.

Next was the Andy Nichol house. Here in the late seventies was the scene of the awful scourge of smallpox. The Mills family lived in this house, which was built on a side-hill or slope. The front door was level with the road, but you went down the slope and into the basement. Here is where Andy Nichol lived, but he never used his door. He kept it locked and climbed in and out of the side window. There were only windows on the one side and the other side was their cellar — right against the earth. He was an old miser and was supposed to have a lot of money hidden some place, either in the house or in his garden. He was very deaf, and as I have already told you, was walking on the railroad between Woodstock and Upper Woodstock, when he was killed by the train. His money never was found as far as is known.

The Mills family lived in this house, using the front door. Well, I cannot remember how many there were in the family, but the whole family was taken with the smallpox. The people of the village were terrified. No one would go to nurse them but Dr. Reynolds, who did not spare himself in the least, and Mrs. Dan Jackson and my mother. I remember so well my father was so cross at my mother for going. He was the undertaker and he had to go and bury people whatever the disease. When my mother came home she took off her dress and apron and hung them on a tree in our garden and asked for fresh clothes to be given her and I remember dad burning her clothes. Whole families died at this time. The disease was a very virulent type. Abram Stone lost two children with it. They buried the Mills family about one every night without any funeral. It was an awful time. I do not remember if this was befoe or after the scourge of diphtheria in 1875 when my two brothers and one sister died in a month. An old lady wrote me it was about sixty years ago, she said, but I think it is longer ago that that, for I would remember it plainly if only sixty years ago.

After Andy died the house was shut up for some time, then it was cleaned and rented. The Rileys lived there, and the Olmsteads, and Ogdens in turn. It was burned down long ago.

The "old Wiley house" they called it came next and it was supposed to be haunted. The windows were boarded up and it was never used in my recollection When we were little children we always ran past this house if we were out in the evenings. This was because we had been told that it was haunted.

The Pritchard house came next and it has been burned.,

The next house on the map was the house built by John Hartt and it is burned.

Next comes the HezekiahStoddard house. In his family were:— Frank, Flora and Lillian. Hezekiah Stoddard was a builder of some ability and he built the "Renfrew" House for W. T. Baird in Woodstock in 1860 and 1861, which was burned to the ground in 1867.

Saul Perley and family lived in this house for years and now Ivan Jackson lives in it. I gave his history with the Jackson's. He was in the World War.

Right opposite to this house was the gate to the Jail. The lot on which the Court House and Jail were built was a very large field. The Jail was built at the rear of this lot, with a driveway from the road up to the front door. There was a yard inclosed at the back with a high board fence. Outside of this was a large garden. The jailer's house was on the upper side, and the cells on the side next to the Court House. Samuel Jones was the jailer. Mr. and Mrs. Jones had three children:— Alice, Augustus (commonly called Gus), and Willie. Alice and I were playmates and I was in this jail many times. Mr. and Mrs. Jones are dead long ago.

ALICE, was a school teacher and was married to Ausin Hartley and they went West, and she died when a very young woman.


Next above the Perley house was the Went Winslow home and farm. This was one of the lovely homes to visit. I never knew his mother. Neither Went or his sister, Mary, ever married, and they lived together. Another sister, Mrs. Jacobs, and her daughter, Flossie, lived there part of the time. I think Mrs. Jacobs taught school. The Winslow farm was large and extended along the Jacksonville Road to Jimmie Harvey's. It was on both sides of the old road that I have spoken of and back to the Iron Ore Road. After the Winslows died the property was sold to Albert Brewer.

Across the road from the Winslow home was the Alonzo Jackson house. They had one daugher, May. She was a very lovely girl. She died in 1883.


At the corner of the road was the David Phillips' home. He had the tannery that we have already spoken of down on Main Street. This was a very pretty house and large. In this family were:— Richard, Rhoda, Gertrude and Norman.

RICHARD, married Charlotte Smtih, who afterwards married William Kearney. Richard at one time ran a meat business in Woodstock near the old "woolen mill" on King Street.

RHODA, married Randolph Britton and they had a boot repair shop and then a meat business, on Main street. They had one son, Stanley, who now keeps "Ledgemont" on the River Road below Woodstock, and a lovely spot it is.

GERTRUDE, married George Wolhapter from Richmond and they had two children, a boy and a girl.

Past the Phillips' house on the left was a road up to the home of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Golding. This was off the main road. They had no family and Mr. Golding was a great horseman. He had a beauty of a horse — gray, almost white — and he called him "Harry" too, so we never knew which one Mrs. Golding was talking about.

My mind is full of funny little sayings of the people of our village, which, if I should tell them, would liven up this dull monotony, but I desist. I will follow Johnson's advice — "The necessity of complying with times, and of sparing persons, is a great impediment of biography. History may be formed from permanent monuments and records; but lives can only be written from personal knowledge, which is growing every day less, and in a short time is lost forever. What is known can seldom be immediately told, and when it might be told it is no longer known. The delicate features of the mind, the nice discriminations of character and the minute peculiarities of conduct, are soon obliterated; and it is surely better than caprice, obstinacy, frolic, and folly, however they might delight in the description should be silently forgotten, than that by wanton merriment and unseasonable detection, a pang should be given to a widow, a daughter, a brother, or a friend. As the process of these narratives is now bringing me among contemporaries, I begin to feel myself, 'walking upon ashes under whiuch the fire is not extinguished' and coming to the time of which it will be proper rather to say nothing that is false, than all that is true." (Johnson Life of Addison).

Next along the road on the right side is the Rev. Thomas Harvey house and farm. This was a dear little home and a very hospitable family. The Harveys had two children:— James (Jimmy) and Bessie.

JIMMY, married Bina Yerxa from Fredericton and they had one child, Hattie. Hattie's mother died in the 80s, and Jimmy married again.

HATTIE, went to Boston and married Harry E. Sears there, and is living in Cambridge, Mass. Mr. Sears died two years ago. They had two children, Richard and Catherine They were both married. Catherine died in October, 1939, leaving three children.

This house has been burned.

Next above was the Ashael Broderick homestead. Mrs. Broderick was an Emery from Jacksonville. They had eight children — four boys and four girls — Harry, Charlie, Norris and Tom, Helen, Lizzie, Maud and Annie.

LIZZIE, was Mrs. Chase.

MAUD, was a Mrs. Edgerton. She lives in Orange, Mass. She is a widow.

ANNIE's married name I do not know.

HELEN, married Benjamin Kent and they lived in Maine.

The others lived somewhere in Massachusetts.

There are only three of them alive now.

After they left Upper Woodstock John Walton lived in this house for some time, then Miss Everett and her family lived there. The house and barns have all been burned down.

Right opposite the Broderick home was the Mrs. George Good home. It is still standing, and a lovely home it was. George Good was born April 6, 1829, and married Margaret Woods from Welsford, N B., June 30, 1859. Mrs. Good was born January 28, 1834, and she was always a widow as long as I knew her, as George died as a young man November 2, 1869. The Goods had six children:— John Woods Good, born November 7, 1860; Kate Burns Good, born October 10, 1862; Charles Clarence Good, born October 30, 1864; George Randolph Good, born August 25, 1866; Frank Ashael Good, born June 5, 1868; Georgie Good, born January 25, 1870.

JOHN WOODS Good married Zelda Bowler June 1, 1897. He went to the West about 1884.

KATIE, died when just a child ten years of age.

CLARE, took charge of the farm, after John left, for a number of years until he also went Wst. He married B. Florence Scott, January 24, 1895, and they have several children.

RANDOLPH, took charge of the farm after Clare left and remained on it until several years after his mother's death. He took an active part in the business life of Upper Woodstock. He was a School Trustee, and I think an Assessor, and a very fine young man. He never married. Randolph also moved west.

ASHAEL went West I think before his mother's death, which occurred July 10, 1900. He married and died, leaving no family.

GEORGIE, married Alonzo Brewer, December 18, 1895, as I have already told you.

The Goods nearly all settled in Denver, Colorado, and Clare in Salt Lake City, Utah. Georgie lives in Denver.

John had four children:— George F., who was killed at Boulder Dam; Margaret, died at the age of three; J. Randolph and Robert L., are married. J. Randolph has one daughter, Cecelia, and Robert L. has two boys — John R. and George G.

Clarence has two daughters, Dorrit Margaret, now Mrs. G. R. Petty, of Alabama, and Kathryn Claire, now Mrs. Herman H. Green, of Salt Lake City. Dorrit has two children — G. Randolph and Betty Flo.


About a quarter of a mile farther on was the Arch Plummer house. In the following letter which I received from Faye Plummer Baker is a description of this house:—

"Woodstock, N. B,      
May 14, 1939.

"Dear Mrs. Miller:—

"I am in to see mother today, so am answering your letter. Ralph Ketchum built our old home. There is a story that it was being built at the time of the Battle of Balaklava (1855) and it was christened 'The Balaklava Castle of the Linden Farm.' It was bought in 1868 by grandfather and we sold it in 1910. Frank, May, Lillian and Harry Miles were dad's sister's children, and were brought up in the home. Their father was dead. Their mother's name was Mary.

"There are five in our family. I, FAYE, am the eldest (Mrs. Guy Baker). I live about four miles from mother, the only one near her. I was a school teacher.

"HELEN is a nurse. She is Instructress of Nurses in a hospital in Sellersville, Pa.

"GEORGIE, also a nurse, is married and lives in New York City.

"WILLIAM ARCHIBALD is married and lives in Vancouver, British Columbia.

"DONALD is married and lives in Malden, Mass. He has two sons — the only grandchildren.

"Mother is able to be up, but has not the use of her hands, so cannot write. Dad is quite well and smart for his years — eighty-one. They celebrated their golden wedding last October 10th. Did you not see it in the "Telegraph"? I think you were one of the guests.

"Mother says Fred Patterson is a noted Baptist preacher now. There are all different people on the farms now from Winslows up.

"If you are up this way any time, I know mother would be very pleased to have you all to see her. Hoping I have answered your questions satisfactorily I am,

                "Sincerely yours,


Charlie Gray bought this place from Arch Plummer and is still living there.

Directly across the road was the Abram Stone farm. Mr. Stone sold this farm to Randolph Ketchum who afterwards sold it to Dudley Kearney and he sold it to E. R. Teed. Now it belongs to Page & Teed — Imperial Products Company. I do not know any of the dates.

The Patterson's house comes next. One of Patterson's sons is the Rev. F. W. Patterson, Principal of Acadia University at Wolfville, N. S., and he is a very outstanding Baptist minister. This house was built by Bob Stevenson, and after the Pattersons, George Mallory lived in it for a long time and now it is owned and occupied by Joseph Campbell.

The next house was David Smith's. He carried on a produce business in Woodstock down by the old C. P. R. station. He had two sons.

This is the end of the houses in the village. I am now going to give you the history of Maudie V. Henderson.

Maudie V. Henderson was the child of my adopted brother, Theodore Henderson (generally called Thad), and Ada M. Honey, of Boston, Mass. She was born in Boston, November 3, 1891, and they came home when she was about six months old. They lived in Woodstock until November, 1893, when they went back to Haverhill, Mass. Another child, Carl, was born in Woodstock, in 1893, September 20th.

In 1894, we brought Maudie back home and brought her up. She was a wonderful musician and studied piano with Ata(sic) Dennison for years while going to High School in Woodstock; then with Minnie B. Adney. She was Mrs Adney's prize pupil. I have her programmes in 1907, 1908, and on.

In 1911 Prof. W. Frank Watson and his family from Greenville, South Carolina, were visiting his parents in Hartland and Maudie got interested in his two daughters, Ethel and Lucia, and made it up to go down with them and study music at the Greenville Conservatory of Music, which she did, and did wonderful work there. I am going to copy a letter from Mrs. Watson at that date:—

"Dear Mrs. Miller:—

"You would have been proud of Maud last night. She played beautifully. A lady who sat by me said, 'Thye are talented and best of all, they are dressed and act like ladies.'

"As we were coming out one of the university professors, who was born in Ontario, said, 'Are we not proud of our little Canuck?'

"I think you will find that the two years in the South have developed Maud into a young woman that you will all be proud of. She has lost some of the little girl and become more grown-up and self-reliant. She will take away from Greenville the respect and love of a wide circle of friends.

"I am writing this to you because I know you and your sister are mothering her and I feel as if I am a sort of foster-mother.

"The girls are looking forward to a happy summer in New Brunswick. Please give my best wishes to all under your roof.

              "Sincerely yours,

CLARA NORWOOD WATSON.                  

      "Greenville, S. C.
        May 23, 1914."

A clipping from a Greenville paper states:—

"Miss Henderson was heard in recital last night. She presented a program of considerable difficulty and great beauty, and is talented to an unusual degree."

Later the same paper said:—

"Never in its history has the walls of all G. F. C. re-echoed with more harmonies and soul-thrilling sounds of beautiful classic music than were heard there when Prof. Schaefer presented Miss Henderson She is a genius as a pianist. Her work gave evidence of versatility and understanding. The audience rose by general impulse and the ovation was beyond compare."

I have her diploma from Greenville Female College, Greenville, South Carolina, dated June 5, 1914, hanging on my wall.

She then went to New York City and studied at the Granberry Piano School, Carnegie Hall, New York City. She used to say as a child, "If I can ever play a solo in Carnegie Hall, New York City, I will die happy." She lived to play many, many solos in Carnegie Hall. She died of Spanish Influenza in Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, on October 11, 1918, and was buried in the family lot in the Presbyterian cemetery at Upper Woodstock. Everybody will remember this terrible scourge that killed thousand of people.

The following extract is from the "Musical Courier," New York, Thursday, October 24, 1918:—


"Dr. Elsenheimer's classes of piano students show an enrollment larger than ever before. A number of pupils have not as yet returned to the city on account of the epidemic, but their names appear on his schedule, and these pupils have reserved their time for the beginning of their term.

"Dr. Elsenheimer received a shock through the loss of his most-talented pupil, Maude Henderson, of New Brunswick, Canada. In speaking of her sudden death a few days ago, Dr. Elsenheimer said:

"'Maude Henderson was by far the most-talented student who ever came to my notice. I have never observed a more gifted pianist, counting even those who were not in my class but attending the institutions of which I am a teacher. Her rendition of Chopin's best works, and of such difficult numbers as Grieg's famous ballads, op. 24, and of 'Isolde's Love Death' (Wagner-Liszt), were a revelation, for she possessed the temperament and pianistic ability to perform these works with authority. Musicianship and a command which was impressive and far-reaching in effect and brilliancy. I do not entertain the slightest doubt that she would have become a world celebrity had she lived.'"

  "Come back! ye friendships long departed!
That like o'erflowing streamlets started,
And now are dwindled, one by one,
To stony channels in the sun!
Come back! ye friends, whose lives are ended,
Come back, with all that light attended,
Which seemed to darken and decay
When ye arose and went away!
Alas! our memories may retrace
Each circumstance of time and place,
Season and scene come back again,
And outward things unchanged remain;
The rest we cannot re-instate;
Ourselves we cannot re-create,
Nor set our souls to the same key
Of the remembered harmony!"



Chapter IX.


As you have just read, Maudie V. Henderson was buried here on October 17th, 1918, and it was such a dreary, desolate, neglected spot my heart ached. I wrote Donald Munro to see what we could do and I will copy his reply:—

"Woodstock, N. B.,            
October 25, 1918."      

My Dear Maud:—

"Yours of the 24th received. When I was at the Cemetery when Maud was buried the other day, I had a talk with Will Wright, and he told me that he was going to have the Cemetery cleaned up, bushes cut and removed along with the rocks and loose stones, and he thought that he could get some of the folks at the Corner to help with the labour, and if some of those interested, who could not help in like manner, would chip in, that the place could easily be put in shape.

"I enclose paper to get signatures to, and have placed my own name on same for $10.00 and trust that it may be worked out all right. My experience with the man you speak of is, that he is a very expensive person to employ. I would rather trust the matter in Mr. Wright's hands, and think he will do what is right.

"With kind regards, I am,

                "Yours sincerely,

"DONALD MUNRO"                  

Next Donald made out a subscription list and said in it to pay to William R. Wright. Well I sent that list to William Wright and he returned it to me saying he was not very good at writing letters and he would leave that for me to do, and he would oversee the work. He sent me a long list of names taken from the tombstones, — just the one name is given, but in nearly every instance it means the family lot, and there are many graves in each lot.

David Phillips — write to R. S. Phillips, Woodstock.

Rev. C. T. Phillips — write to Kate Phillips.

Frank Slipp — write to Woodstock, R.R.D.

John Britton — write to Burill Britton.

M. B. Craig — write to M. B. Craig, St. Stephen.

Charles True — write to George True, Town.

Phillip Raymond — write to Mrs. F. L. Atherton, Town.

Fred Nevers — write to T. W. Nevers, Town.

Mrs. Chase — write to Zopher Phillips, Upper Woodstock.

W. C. Ferguson — write to C. H. Ferguson, Saint John, or Mrs. Will Ferguson, Woodstock.

Sawyers — write to C., H. Ferguson, for address.

McCloskeys — write to Wm. McCloskey, Upper Woodstock.

Rev. George T. Hartley — write to Austin Hartley, Stark, Montana.

McIntosh — write to Mrs. Will Murphy, Montreal.

Howard Jackson — write to Mrs. Howard Jackson, Campobello.

James Brown — write to Mrs. Joshua Crawford, Houlton, Me.

F. W. Cochran — write to F. W. Cochran, Calais, Maine.

Harry Golding — write to Mrs. Harry Golding.

Robert Fitzsimmons — write to Mrs. Lizzie Fitzsimmons, McAdam, or Cecil Fitzsimmons, McAdam.

Dan W. Jackson — write to David Jackson.

Solomon Perley — write to Mrs. Solomon Perley, Up. Woodstock.

Cluff — write to Daniel Cluff, Upper Woodstock.

Seeleys — write to Melburn Seeley, Upper Woodstock.

Shaw — write to Mrs. Stephen Shaw, Jacksontown.

Alterton — write to Mrs. Len Alterton, Boston, Mass.

Jackson — write to Edward Jackson, Monticello.

Carr — write to Mrs. Thomas Carr, (Old Factory).

May — write to Charles May, (old Patterson house).

Britton — write to Stanley Britton.

Robinson — write to Miss Ruth Robinson, or Mrs. Joe Gans.

Cochrane — write to Mrs. Cochrane (How. Jackson house).

John E. Smith — write to Willie Smith, St. Stephen.

Kimble — write to Mrs. Homer Kimble (Sam Hamilton house).

Emery — write to (Bessie Emery) Mrs. Austin Hartley, Stark, Montana.

Britton — write to Miss Francis(sic) Britton, Saint John.

Mrs. Robinson — write to Mrs. Roy London, Bellville.

Col. V.(sic) McLeod Vince — write to Mrs. Vince, Woodstock.

McLellan — write to David McLellan.

Chapman — write to George Chapman.

This is the list that Willie Wright sent me and you will see that it was a good deal of work to find the addresses of all these people and write to all of them, which I did. I am going to copy below a few of their answers.

"Woodstock, N. B.,              
October 31, 1918.      

"Dear Mrs. Miller:—

"Your letter received and have been thinking it over, and will be very pleased to give what you ask, for that purpose. Please do not have the small apple tree which stands near our grave cut down.

"You will pardon my saying this I know, I am really very much obliged to you for going ahead in the matter, as it is rather disgraceful the way the cemetery is kept, or not kept.

"We were greatly shocked at the news of poor Maudie's death. Please accept our love and sympathy. It is very, very sad, such a talented young life to be taken away. I hope your and your family are keeping well.

                "With kindest love,

"MELICENT A. VINCE."                  


"Woodstock, N. B.,              
November 17, 1918.      

"Dear Mrs. Miller:—

"I received your letter and I have been thinking about the graveyard at Upper Woodstock this summer quite a little, especially the Ferguson lot. I thought Clair might come up and I would talk it over with him, but he was just up on an auto trip and I did not get a chance to say anything to him.

"I am willing to give $5.00. Will you be able to get anything done this fall? I should think the ground would be too hard to work now.

"It was very sad about Maudie's death wasn't it? This new disease seems to be taking so many of our young people. It has been nearly as bad as the war.

                "Sincerely yours,

"MARY E. FERGUSON."                  


"St. Stephen, N. B.,              
July 6, 1919.      

"Dear Mrs. Miller:—

"Yours of the 30th received and am enclosing cheque for $15.00. I think there should be enough people interested to have the grounds put in good shape and then it should not cost very much to keep them that way.

"I am willing to pay my share every year.

                "Yours respectfully,

"J. W. SMITH."                                


"Upper Woodstock, N. B.,              
August 7, 1919.      

"Mrs. S. S. Miller:—

"Yours of the 5th instant to hand with cheques. There has been nine days' work since I wrote you before. I expect the posts today and will get the fence fixed as soon as possible.

"I have the roots about all out and have been waiting for Mr. Kimball to help with team work so as to get the stone cleaned up and will snug up as much as possible so as not to make too much expense as we may run short of funds. Should have some pipes to mark the walks if we can get funds enough to pay for them.

                "Yours truly,

"W. R. WRIGHT."                          


"Upper Woodstock, N. B.,              
August 1, 1919.      

"Mrs. S. S. Miller:—

"Dear Friend — I have been expecting to hear from you so as to get your address, but thought I better send you in the time up to July 31st.

"We have all the bushes cut and about all the stones set up, except some few that will have to have some cement and we have a good many of the roots dug out but that is quite a big job as there are so many of them.

"I tried in town at the mills for fence posts and they wanted sixty-five cents a piece for them. I think I have a chance to get them for half or less by waiting for a short time till the man gets done haying. We need about eighteen of them as near as we could tell. There is a good deal of work to be done yet to make it look as we would like it, but will have to consider the amount of funds we have so as not to exceed the money.

"If you receive this please write as soon as possible, and oblige.

                "Yours truly,

"W. R. WRIGHT."                              


"Upper Woodstock, N. B.,              
August 25, 1919.      

"Dear Friend:—

"I wish you would come down and see if we had better do any more work. We have it in fair shape but it was in such a bad state that there is no end to it.

"Perhaps we have spent too much already, but we got so far with it and could not leave it half done.

"I enclose the bill for posts and time up till Saturday night. Fisher and one of the others are working today and I thought we would stop unless we heard from you.

                      "Yours truly,

"W. R. WRIGHT."                                    


"Saint John, N. B.,              
September 6, 1919.      

"My Dear Maud:—

"It seemed quite like the old days to have you call me Clare and in fancy I was back again at the old schoolhouse at the Corner with the boys and girls who played so carefree there with never a thing to worry about and never a thought of the future. What changes the fleeting years have brought!

"I sincerely hope that your little girl will improve and that her life will be spared to you.

"For taking the interest you have in the Cemetery I am very grateful, especially for letting me know the condition of the monument over mother's grave.

"If you will be good enough to let the stone-erector look at it when he is up as you suggest and have him do whatever is necessary to be done and let me know what the cost is I will at once remit you for same.

"I am now enclosing you my cheque for $10.00 towards the general fund and if it is the intention to have an annual payment you may count on me as one of the subscribers.

"Again thanking you, Maud, and with sincere sympathy for you in your anxious moments, I am,

                "Faithfully yours,

"C. H. FERGUSON."                  


"4540 St. Catherine St. W.,              
Montreal, P. Q.                                  
January 17, 1920.      

"My Dear Maude—

"It was a most pleasant surprise to receive your welcome letter and I return all the compliments of the season (if a little late) and I also compliment you on having the Cemetery at Upper Woodstock cleaned up and am sure there must be a great improvement and one that was much needed.

"Ever since I was at home the last time, I have had father's and mother's graves attended to by a man named Ed. Greer, who was supposed to keep them and the plot in good repair. I did not expect to be so long in visiting dear old Upper Woodstock, my main object is to visit and see to the graves, so hope to get down next summer and am sure I will see a great improvement around and certainly Mrs. Maude Miller is to be thanked for interesting herself and having the Cemetery cleaned up.

"I am enclosing five dollars from myself, and Frank, my eldest son, is also sending five and I trust you will have success in collecting what is due you. I enclose Dave Mackinstosh's address and you can write him and send him a list of those that contributed and surely he will send his mite.

"My family are all at home and we had a very pleasant Christmas and New Year, especially as Murray was at home with us after being five years overseas.

"Now with every hope that you will be successful in collecting what is justly due you and also thanking you for the interest you have shown in having the Cemetery cleaned up, I remain with kind love,

                "Sincerely yours,

"NELLIE MACKINTOSH MURPHY."                        

"David's address is:— 'Burrard Iron Works, Engineers, Machinists and Boiler Makers, 140-144 Alexander Street, Vancouver, B. C. W. D. Mackintosh and Robert Brown, — Partners.'"


"St. Stepen, N. B.,              
July 12, 1920.      

"Mrs. Maud Miller:—

Yours received in regards to Cemetery. I have not seen the work that you have had done, but may be up there soon. I will enclose express order for $5.00 to help the work along.

                "Yours respectfully,

"J. W. SMITH."                  


"Upper Woodstock, N. B.,              
August 9, 1920."      

"Dear Friend:—

I received your letter of July 24th. I had the Cemetery cleaned up just after we were talking in Town and it cost ten dollars ($10.00). We cleaned it all up good and it looked very well. It will likely need to be trimmed up again this season but the grass does not grow so rapidly later in the season.

"Some parties have been getting their lots fixed up. If you will give me the names of those who did not pay you, I will call on them and see if I can collect some. Would have answered before but was waiting to get the address Rev. John A. Ives, Kensington, P. E. I. (for Julia Johnson for her mother's grave).

                "Yours truly,

"W. R. WRIGHT."                  

Following is a statement of the Cemetery Account:—


Received from—

June William Smith
  Donald Munro
  Emma Henderson
  Mrs. S. S. Miller
  Mrs. Frank L. Atherton
  David McLellan
  Mrs. George Chapman
  Mrs. Joe Gans
  Miss Ruth Robinson
  Mrs. Thomas Carr
  Mrs. Harry Golding
  Mrs. Len Alterton
Aug. Mrs. Zophar Phillips
  Mrs. D. M. Vince
  Frank Slipp
  Ed. Slipp
Sept. Clare Ferguson
Oct. Cecil Fitzsimmons
  Katie Phillips
  Maude Phillips
Nov. Mrs. Dan Cluff
  Mrs. Sol. Perley
Dec. Mrs. Will Ferguson


Payments to—

July Amaziah Wheeler
  Allan Wright
  Arthur Wright
Aug. Arthur Wright
Sept. Amaziah Wheeler
Nov. Arthur Wright
  Amaziah Wheeler
  C. A. Mallory
  By Balance Due Maud Miller, Nov. 8, 1919



Received from—

Dec. David Jackson
Jan. Mrs. Nellie Murphy
  Frank Murphy
July Willie Smith
Sept. Donald Munro
July Willie Smith
Sept. Maud Miller
Jan. Mrs. Ives
  Mrs. Robert Strain
$   53.00
  Balance Still Due Maud Miller
$     4.25

There were a number of other people who subscribed to this work, but who never paid.

I have copied these letters as a link to the past, to show you the feelings of the people who have gone away from us and their willingness to help recover this bit of "God's acre" from its state of neglect and improve the general appearance. I also want to let you see how much Willie Wright did in this improvement work. He spoke of others from the village helping him, but I have no way of knowing who these people were; so if anyone helped and they are not mentioned here I hope they will understand that I did not mean to slight them.

My own family lot is full:— Robert, Annie, and Willie, all in 1875; my grandmother Porter, my father, 1908; my mother, 1912; Maudie, 1918, and last of all Emma in 1933.

  "Let our unceasing, earnest prayer
Be, too, for light, for strength to bear
Our portion of the weight of care,
That crushes into dumb despair
      One-half the human race.

"O suffering, sad humanity!
O ye afflicted ones, who lie
Steeped to the lips in misery,
Longing, and yet afraid to die,
      Patient, though sorely tried!

"I pledge you in this cup of grief,
Where floats the fennel's bitter leaf!
The Battle of our Life is brief,
The alarm, — the struggle, — the relief, —
      Then sleep we side by side."



Chapter X.


This is Roger Babson's report printed in the Fredericton "Daily Gleaner," February 27, 1940, with which I fully agree. I was going to express these ideas, but Babson has expressed them so well I am copying his report:—

"Savannah, Ga., Feb. 26. — Naturally I get many letters from readers of this column. Just recently I received a most interesting letter from G. C. Konkler, of Mena, Arkansas, telling of his personal experiences. He had lost his city job during the depression and had to decide between going back to the land or going onto relief. He chose the former and drifted to the enterprising town of Mena in the Ouachita Mountains, just a stone's throw from the Oklahoma line. There he and his family started again with absolutely nothing — just as did the Pilgrims when they landed on the shores of Massachusetts Bay in 1620.

"Of course, his family had no money for movies, radio, or gasoline. They built their own hut out of cast-off boxes and other waste material on the outskirts of the town. He got a job for one dollar a day and the family lived upon it and saved money from the first week. They lived on oatmeal, milk, tough meat, and greens. They slept on straw and made their own furniture — but they were healthy and happy. The children made their own clothes and went to school When spring came they planted a garden in which they all worked.

Answer To Steinbeck

"Then the father decided to rent a cheap vacant store — to sell goods when the chain stores were closed and the other merchants were at the movies. I will not go into more details, but in view of all the sensational and sentimental publicity being focussed on tenant farmers as a result of John Steinbeck's 'Grapes of Wrath,' Mr.Konkler's story interested me very much. Hence, I wrote three leading people in Mena to see if what Mr. Konkler wrote me were true. They replied that every word was true.

"I then asked Mr. Konkler to expand his ideas. Both he and I believe that the small farm offers a real opportunity to thousands now working on relief jobs. Developing and working the land would bring them more happiness, health, good living, and sound security than most of them will ever achieve in any other way. Today, too many families are just one pay cheque better off than they were several years ago. Surely any thinking person must know that something more durable must be tried to remedy conditions. All, so far, have been merely shots in the arm to ease the pain.

Relief Killed Movement

"In 1932, Mr. Konkler drove a $150 Ford 500 miles into the mountains of Arkansas. He found thousands of people out of jobs. Families, however, with just a little money left, were going back to the farms, making new lives for themselves, and liking it. They were blotting themselves from charity rolls and improving the general situation. Yet most of such efforts collapsed when Uncle Sam opened his relief purse. Today, hundreds of homes lie desolate and abandoned. Meanwhile, their former tenants purchase, with their relief pittance, quantities of products such as those acres could have produced.

"It is Mr. Konkler's contention that farm development built this country in the first place. Therefore, he believes that only the development of our idle acres will today solve our relief problems. New pioneers on subsistence farms would not jump farm productions much, would not add to farm surpluses. It would stimulate business and trade in scattered areas, as these 1940 pioneers would have to buy ever kind of farm tool and necessity. Best of all, this development would not skyrocket the national debt.

Needed: Men With A Will

"I am not referring to re-settlement projects of the type the Government has tried in spots, — setting people down with high-falutin homes, giving them all modern conveniences, launching them with a hopeless debt. Let them begin just as their fore-fathers did, if they can do no better. What our country needs right now is the man with a will. We need more men, more families, with the will to shun Government help, with the will to take hold wherever they can with the will to do their best with what they have to do with! Personal initiative was what made this country great, and only personal initiative will solve its present problems! Let me quote Mr. Konkler:—

"'Our leaders, as a rule, are just plain afraid to suggest, even faintly, that individuals who are in need of help should help themselves. They fear to recommend the old-fashioned virtues and the personal advantages of going back to constructive work. I am not an idealist. I know all the loafers can never be converted to the advantages of hard work. But I do feel sure that a national drive along such lines, using plain talk instead of taffy, would greatly increase the percentage of those trying to help themselves.

Better Than War

"'Farm relief measures have been political footballs; each candidate trying to increase the "benefits" to the voting farmers back home. Instead of these handouts, we should encourage individual families to move to farms. The men of these families would go to war to save their country. Would it not be much more pleasant to go back to the land and save themselves as well as their country, — starting as farm hands or renters, then on up to ownership and security, just as people used to do? Think of the happy days — as they gained self-respect and independence, inch by inch. I know because I have been through it. Nothing else will ever bring them more happiness, satisfaction, or secutiry.'

"I do not need to add to Mr. Konkler's comments. He has summed up the situation concisely and emphasized a very fundamental principle."

This situation is equally true in New Brunswick, yes, in Canada.

My aim in writing this book was to let the present generation have a glimpse into the inner lives of the last generation and see the vast gulf that lies between.

We were taught self-reliance — not to be leaning posts.

We were taught temperance, no, total abstinence.

We were taught to worship God, and pay a tenth of our income to the upkeep of the Gospel — not the tenth after we had paid for everything we needed, and if we had any left give a tenth of that. That is the way people, largely speaking, give today — no personal sacrifice, hence no love for the cause. You are interested in anything to the extent that you are willing to sacrifice for it — no farther. That is the primary reason for the falling off of church attendance and church funds. "Without a vision the people perish." This idea of having church suppers and bazaars, etc., yes, even lotteries, leaves a bad taste in the mouth. What did Jesus say, "My house is a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves."

You say that is strong language — I think not. When I see the result of all this festivity in the Church Courts, I fear I am right. The love of prayer and prayer meetings, which we so much enjoyed in the old days, seems gone forever. For when you want a crowd in the church you must needs have a chicken supper, and all the ladies will be there tripping over each other to serve; but when prayer-meeting night comes six or seven old people will be in their seats, that is if the night is fine. Now have not these festivities in the Church stolen away all reverence for God's House? I do believe in suppers in the church, say four times a year, for the poor, the maimed, the halt, and the blind, and these should be freely given by those who have three good meals each day and have no need of further nourishment, but not to make money for the Lord's cause.

In our Sabbath Schools today the children are learning how to make Easter eggs and colour them, how to mould vases, etc., — good kindergarten work, — but never to memorize a golden text or the Ten Commandments, and how are they to know "Thou shalt not steal," etc., when it is never taught to them? Is it not sad to think that Christianity is at such a low ebb?

Now in political life the rule holds just the same. How are politicians to act, when some of the public are willing to accept pay for their votes, if not in cash then some promise of office or like remuneration; and then they storm and swear at "their" representative for trying to sneak back some of the funds that he had to pay out to become their representative. They have only to look in the mirror and see he is true to type. What is going to be done about this? When are we going to learn the Eighth Commandment? It has not been rescinded, has it? The idea of getting something for nothing is abroad in the world. This ticket-selling world that we are in now is surely a drifting world. Tickets on everything — everywhere you go "buy a ticket?" You may get something for ten cents, worth ten dollars, — all wrong. When will it cease? Not until people say, "No more of it. I only want what is honestly mine." "Straws show which way the wind blows" and unless we stop and think, the wind will blow us far off the beaten track of plain honest living.

  "An honest man's the noblest work of God" —
"But who, but God, can tell us who they are?"


© 2012 R. Wallace Hale — Used with permission.